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Change log entry 70751
Processed by: richwarm (2020-09-16 21:43:32 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65924 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【现代汉语大词典】
指揭露、指责别人的思想用心。
| 夏衍《观剧偶感》:讽喻之妙, 在于诛心。


譬如李纲与太学正秦桧有相当交情,一直认为他议论英发,心思缜密,是不可多得的人才。太学中的几个朋友与秦桧打过交道,吃过暗亏,不能同意他的意见。李纲因为他们拿不出多少真凭实据,单凭几句诛心 的空话就替秦桧下结沦,也不肯同意他们的不同意见,双方又形成了相持不决的僵局。
徐兴业《金瓯缺》

为惩治他们起见,所以他往往怒目而视,或者大声说几句“诛心”话,或者在冷僻处,便从后面掷一块小石头。
> He often employed his dirtylookism to punish such miscreants. Occasionally he would voice a loud comment to show that he knew what a couple was "really up to," no matter how innocent their behavior might seem on the surface. And occasionally—if the place was isolated—he'd throw a pebble at them from behind. (Lyell)
> In order to correct such people, he would glare furiously, pass loud, cutting remarks, or, if the place were deserted, throw a small stone from behind. (Yangs)
> He was always disciplining them with his Angry Glare, or with a few sentences of penetrating criticism; if there was nobody else about, he would cast a pebble at them from behind. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》
Diff:
# 誅心 诛心 [zhu1xin1] /to expose sb's true motives/to criticize sb's motives/
+ 誅心 诛心 [zhu1 xin1] /to criticize sb for what one believes to be their ulterior motive/

Change log entry 70713
Processed by: richwarm (2020-09-14 04:31:53 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64908 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
Judging from the definitions on Chinese dictionaries 蝮蛇 is one specific species of snake, it doesn't refer to venomous snakes in general. 百度百科 gives the scientific name Agkistrodon halys. Wikipedia says this is a taxonomic synonym for both “Gloydius halys, a.k.a. the Siberian pit viper” and “Gloydius saxatilis, a.k.a. the Amur viper”. Wikipedia redirects 蝮蛇 to 蝮亚科 — Crotalinae i.e. pit vipers (“蝮亚科(学名Crotalinae)是蝰蛇科的一个亚科,统称蝮蛇”). While Wenlin has a one-word definition (“adder”), the editing mode (thanks @richwarm for letting me know about the extra information there) shows a number of remarks mentioning “Pallas pit viper”, which seems to imply people at Wenlin Ins. think it refers to this specific species. According to Wikipedia “Pallas pit viper” is one of the common names for Gloydius halys.

In conclusion, I believe 蝮蛇 refers primarily to Gloydius halys, although it may also be used to refer to any pit viper 蝮亚科.

【Wenlin】
n. adder

【Pleco】
NOUN
ZOOLOGY
pit viper

【LAC】
爬行动物名。全球分布的一类毒蛇,超过200种,最小的种类不到30公分长,最大者长约3.5公尺。体粗尾细,头呈三角形。毒牙较长,毒液中含有血毒素或神经毒素。行动较其他蛇类迟缓,以捕食小动物维生。也作「蝰蛇」。

【规范】
名 毒蛇, 体长60—90厘米, 头三角形, 灰褐色, 有斑纹。生活在平原及低山区, 捕食蛙、鸟、鼠等。
Diff:
- 蝮蛇 蝮蛇 [fu4 she2] /venomous snake/
+ 蝮蛇 蝮蛇 [fu4 she2] /Siberian pit viper (Gloydius halys)/pit viper/

Change log entry 70710
Processed by: richwarm (2020-09-14 04:04:37 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65810 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
cf. 数字

* Only Pleco says it means amount, rather that numeral, number. GF explicitly excludes the "amount" sense.

【Wenlin】
n. numeral; figure; digit

【Pleco】
number; amount
| 数目(字)很大的一笔钱
| a huge amount of money

【LAC】
1. 表示数目的字。汉字的数字有大写和小写两种:「零壹贰参肆伍陆柒捌玖拾佰仟」等为大写;「○一二三四五六七八九十百千」等为小写。
2. 表示数目的符号。如阿拉伯数字、罗马数字。也作「数码」。
同义词:数字

【MoE】
表現具體數量概念的文字。如:「現在螢幕所顯現的數目字,代表出席人數。」

【规范词典】
名 数字①②。
[① 名 表示数目的字。汉字的数字有小写和大写两种。小写为○一二三四五六七八九十百千; 大写为零壹贰叁肆伍陆柒捌玖拾佰仟。万、亿等通用于大小写。
②名 表示数目的符号, 如阿拉伯数字、罗马数字等。(也说数目字。)]


数目字在以华语为启蒙教育的孩童中显得比较简单;在运算过程中也就显得简易而快捷多了。
Children taught in Chinese find it easier to learn numerals and can do their calculations much easier and faster.

让你的孩子练习把数目字和字母写在纸上。
Let your child practice writing numbers and letters on paper.

机内楼层显示器有一个不太显眼的红色数目字显示背光灯;
The interior floor indicator has a red numeral display backlight which is not very visible.

我文章中的数目字指的是注脚。
The numbers in my article refer to the footnotes.

他觉得头里面很胀满,似乎桠桠叉叉的全被木柴填满了,五五二十五,脑皮质上还印着许多散乱的亚剌伯数目字。
> His head was so jam-packed with crisscrossed pieces of firewood he thought it was going to burst: 5, 5, 25-a chaos of arabic numerals was indelibly stamped across the front of his brain. (Lyell)
> His head seemed to be bursting as if filled to the brim with sharp faggots. Five fives are twenty-five — scattered Arabic numerals were still imprinted on his brain. (Yangs)
> His head now felt swollen, stuffed full of firewood. #2 5 x 5 = 25... Arabic numerals crowded his brain. (Lovell)
鲁迅《幸福的家庭》
----------------------------------------

Editor: I'm not so sure that it can't mean "amount".
1) GF often "explicitly excludes" certain usages that it deems incorrect, but which in fact have substantial usage.
2) New Century defines 数目字 as "same as 数字" and its sense #3 of 数字 is "quantity; amount".
3) There's this quote from Mao Dun's "Midnight":
七八十号经纪人的一百多助手以及数不清的投机者,造成了雷一样的数目字的嚣声,不论谁的耳朵都失了作用。
"Seventy or eighty brokers, together with their hundred-odd assistants and innumerable speculators, produced between them such a deafening pandemonium of shouting and bidding that no ordinary ear could have made anything of it."
Diff:
+ 數目字 数目字 [shu4 mu4 zi4] /numeral/digit/number/figure/

Change log entry 70694
Processed by: richwarm (2020-09-12 07:09:41 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 62624 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
〈要著〉
【LAC】
重要的著作。
| 这是一本人生哲学~,要好好研读。

【规范】
名 重要的著作
| 要著简介。


〈要着〉
【Wenlin】
n. necessary/effective step/measure; an important move

【LAC】
重要的事;首要的事。
| 派兵驻守为边防第一~
| 最~,不是距离,而是心中有彼此。
Diff:
+ 要著 要著 [yao4 zhu4] /important book/
# 要著 要着 [yao4 zhuo2] /important (measure)/
+ 要著 要着 [yao4 zhuo2] /important thing/crucial thing/

Change log entry 70693
Processed by: richwarm (2020-09-12 06:54:47 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 62505 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
f.e. ①in sharp contrast; no ambiguity at all ②right and wrong clearly distinguished
| 他一向都是黑白分明。
| He always clearly distinguishes between right and wrong.

【Pleco】
IDIOM
with black and white sharply contrasted; in sharp contrast
| 两种态度, 黑白分明。
| The two attitudes stand in sharp contrast.

【MoE】
1. 黑色、白色区分明显。如:「斑马身上的颜色黑白分明,煞是好看。」
2. 比喻是非善恶分明。
| 汉.董仲舒《春秋繁露.保位权》:「黑白分明,然后民知所去就。」
| 《清史稿.卷三六四.汤金钊传》:「朝有诤臣,使朕胸中黑白分明,无伤于政体, 不胜欣悦!」也作「白黑分明」。
3. 形容眼睛清澈明亮。如:「小孩子的眼睛黑白分明,心地天真无邪。」

【LAC】
1. 黑色和白色区分明显。
| 她那双眼睛清澈明亮,~。
2. 比喻对是非善恶清楚明白。
| 他的个性一向~,嫉恶如仇



她一面拍手,一面使劲蹦,把两绺鬈发 从她的教友会的小帽里震落了下来,黑白分明地衬在她的白围巾上。
She gave such a bound from the floor, as she clapped her little hands, that two stray curls fell from under her Quaker cap, and lay brightly on her white neckerchief.

画面效果黑白分明,树下茅亭内行人停车小憩,安然自在。
While the travelers resting under the pavilion and trees are carefree and comfortable. The clear hues of black and white produce a impressive effect.

这不是像敌友那种黑白分明的关系。
This is not a relationship that fits neatly into the black and white categories like friend or rival.

我们这个世界没有所谓黑白分明,我们的期望也总是不能如愿。
Nothing is clear in our world. Nothing happens the way we expect it to.
Diff:
# 黑白分明 黑白分明 [hei1 bai2 fen1 ming2] /black and white clearly contrasted (lit.)/in clear contrast/to distinguish clearly right from wrong/
+ 黑白分明 黑白分明 [hei1 bai2 fen1 ming2] /black and white clearly contrasted/(fig.) unambiguous/black-and-white/in sharp contrast/to distinguish clearly right from wrong/

Change log entry 70640
Processed by: richwarm (2020-09-06 05:07:56 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64994 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
Almost always “万夫不当之勇”, which should (maybe) also be added.

【Wenlin】
f.e. very brave

【LAC】
万人都阻挡不住。形容非常勇猛。
| 此人武艺高超,有~之勇。

【MoE】
众人不能抵御。形容非常勇健。
| 元.无名氏《连环计.第二折》:「老夫想来他权势重大,况兼吕布有万夫不当之勇。」
| 清.孔尚任《桃花扇.第一三出》:「俺左良玉立功边塞,万夫不当,也是天下一个好健儿。」
也作「万夫莫当」。

【现代汉语大词典】
万人不能抵御。形容极其勇健。
| 郭沫若《孔雀胆》:阿奴, 你的万夫不当之勇, 就这样被一两个阴险的奸贼葬送了!


大兵是就要到的。你可知道,这回保驾的是张大帅,张大帅就是燕人张翼德的后代,他一支丈八蛇矛,就有万夫不当之勇,谁能抵挡他,”他两手同时捏起空拳,仿佛握着无形的蛇矛模样,向八一嫂抢进几步道,“你能抵挡他么!
鲁迅《风波》

小燕子就笑著看乾隆,说:“皇阿玛!你笑够了没有?笑够了,我就告诉你,你被我骗了!刚刚是故意说错,来让你笑一笑的!我看的是水浒传,里面有一个李逵,手舞两把大斧,有万夫不当 之勇!对了吗?”
琼瑶《还珠格格续集》

较之步行者,湖人在中锋位置上占据优势。有万夫不当 之勇的“大鲨鱼”奥尼尔对付里克·史密茨有些轻而易举。
王胜《NBA总决赛前瞻》文汇报(2000-6-7)
Diff:
# 萬夫不當 万夫不当 [wan4 fu1 bu4 dang1] /lit. unbeatable by even 10.000 men/extremely brave and strong/
+ 萬夫不當 万夫不当 [wan4 fu1 bu4 dang1] /lit. unbeatable by even 10,000 men (idiom)/fig. extremely brave and strong/

Change log entry 70516
Processed by: richwarm (2020-08-31 10:16:23 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 63912 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
The translation "warm up wine" is fairly obvious, but:
1) 温 by itself rarely means "to warm up" in modern Chinese, that why Chinese dictionaries use expressions like 加温 or 加热.
2) As a noun, 温酒 is just 酒 that has been warmed up, however 酒 isn't what in the West is called wine, but especially 黄酒 or 白酒, possibly other kinds of "Chinese wine". To the best of my knowledge mulled wine is not normally called 温酒, although I've seen it translated as 热酒 and 热红酒.

【Wenlin】
v.o. warm up wine

【LAC】
1. 使酒变热。
| 她正在~。
2. 温热的酒。
| 这种药必须~送服。

【MoE】
將酒加溫變熱。
| 《北史.卷三五.王慧龍傳》:「今溫酒及炙肉,用石炭、木灰火、竹火、草火、麻荄火,氣味各不同。」

【规范词典】
动 把酒放在热水中烫热。
名 温热的酒。

【百度百科】
关羽温酒斩华雄,从此名震各诸侯;曹操青梅煮酒论英雄,苦辣酸甜都在喉……中国历史上,跟温酒有关的桥段很多,都极具英雄豪情。事实上,不仅我们所熟知的黄酒,白酒、葡萄酒、清酒等都可以加热饮用,并且加热的温度、加热的配料、加热的方式等都有很多考究。
https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%B8%A9%E9%85%92/222879


自从道君皇帝邀师师出逃,经她严词拒绝以后,这个皇帝在她心中才是真正死透了,因而她的行动就更加没有拘束。邢倞家中还有位夫人,始到邢家去,就帮助夫人做菜温酒 。
徐兴业,《金瓯缺》

土司太太身上却没有这样的味道。她叫人在茶壶里烫酒,用温酒 吞下了几个鸦片姻泡,她又叫人温第二杯酒,在这空当里,她又叫我弯下腰,吻了吻我的额头,悄声说:“这一下,我生的儿子是不是傻子我都不用操心了。”
阿来,《尘埃落定》

你爸也检讨啦,两个老头子,说起过去的艰难都落泪了。后来,你爸说,现在是好日子,不提伤心事,他硬叫你叔将你婶和娃娃都叫来,两家喝个团圆酒。你爸又叫我炒菜温酒 。
人民日报1957年10月10日

另外几件不在禁上的,左边三件小的是觯,大的叫“盉”(音禾),右边的一件叫“斝”(音贾)。盉和斝是盛酒用的,也可以温酒 。
人民日报1960年03月09日
Diff:
+ 溫酒 温酒 [wen1 jiu3] /to warm up wine/wine served warm, generally referring to Chinese wine such as 黃酒[huang2 jiu3] and 白酒[bai2 jiu3]/

Change log entry 70496
Processed by: richwarm (2020-08-30 09:46:07 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65278 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* ABC's region tag "PRC" seems plainly wrong to me. 山地同胞 appears mostly on Taiwanese sources and (according to Wikipedia) was used mostly during early KMT rule.
* 山胞 is abbreviation of 山地同胞 but it seems more common than the original expression.

※ 山地同胞

【Wenlin】
n. 〈PRC〉 Taiwan aborigines (most of whom live in mountainous regions)

【MoE】
由于原住民多半居住在山地,因此前人多称之为「山地同胞」。参见「原住民」条。

【Wikipedia】
During the early period of Chinese Nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) rule the terms Shandi Tongbao (山地同胞) "mountain compatriots" and Pingdi Tongbao (平地同胞) "plains compatriots" were invented, to remove the presumed taint of Japanese influence and reflect the place of Taiwan's indigenous people in the Chinese Nationalist state.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwanese_indigenous_peoples
[Chinese Wikipedia redirects 山地同胞 to 台湾原住民族]

下著雨般模糊的銀幕上,首先映入眼簾的是微微振動的日文影片標題——「高砂族描繪」。「高砂族」是日本人對山地同胞的稱呼。
On the speckled screen, the title "Portrait of the Exquisite People" is the first thing to appear--"Exquisite People" being the name given to the mountain aboriginals by the Japanese.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=73ec5397-3b4d-45d5-8f85-cba944463cb3&CatId=1

或許藝術之外,更重要的是文化的溝通——讓我們去認識同踩在一塊土地、同吸一口氣的九族山地同胞;藉著現代舞台,展開高山與平地的對話。
Even more important than art, perhaps, is cultural communication--helping us get to know the culture of the nine aboriginal people, who walk the same earth and breath the same air as we. With the contemporary scene as a forum, a dialogue has begun between the mountains and the plains.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=0bd05392-71ff-4ac4-b542-341e9f56486f&CatId=1

台灣的山地同胞共有十族。過去,山胞居住在交通不便的山區,以狩獵和簡單的農耕為生,有獨特的生活方式與宗教信仰,和平地鮮有交通。
The 10 aboriginal tribes in Taiwan are mostly to be found in remote mountain areas, and have traditionally earned a living from hunting and farming.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=541ff166-12d2-4978-ba59-3c648fd27010&CatId=1

社会本来就是一个大型的染缸,人人称羡之余,竞相效法。甚至有人在办丧事时,都要高价请人来段销魂艳舞,才能令活者顺心,死者瞑目。由这些山地同胞 身上,我看到了人间社会阴暗的一面,有一阵子,我曾想去山地为他们服务。
朱邦复《智慧之旅》

对这个“九族文化村”,当地舆论看法也不尽一致。当晚我们在电视里就看到一场围绕“九族文化村”而展开的争论,山地同胞 对展示他们的习俗来赚钱颇有不满。
《人民日报》1994


※ 山胞

【Wenlin】
n.
① residents of mountainous areas
②〈TW〉 the indigenous people of Taiwan

【LAC】
〖台〗山地同胞。因旧时曾设置山地行政处,故称。后于1994年正名为「原住民」。

【MoE】
山地同胞的简称。战后,因设置山地行政处,而以山地同胞称呼原住民。参见「原住民」条。

日月潭為國際馳名的風景名勝,亦為總統蔣公生前行館所在地之一。從湖畔碼頭乘遊艇,首先可到位於潭東的蕃社,又稱德化社。這是從前山胞曹族聚居的村落,現在房屋都變成了現代化的建築,山胞也過著和平地人一樣的生活。遊客在這裡可欣賞到山胞的歌舞與服飾,同時也可以購到當地山胞製作的手工藝品
Sun Moon Lake is an internationally renowned tourist attraction. President Chiang Kai-shek loved this place and often came here for retreat and meditation. A village here with a museum of Taiwan's aborigine people is one attraction of the lake. Songs and dances of these mountaineers are regularly presented. Their handicraft products are also available for purchase.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=9179e4b3-4ed6-4e7e-95ca-a67a310040df&CatId=1

都市山胞奇美行
Summer Camp for Aborigine City kids
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=9f2ba630-4c26-487e-bed9-1d110668680f&CatId=1

鎮內居民共三萬六千人,90%是來自廣東四縣(梅縣、蕉嶺、五華、興寧)及海陸區(海豐、陸豐)的客家人後裔。其他則是閩南人和山胞。
Of the total population of 36,000 people, roughly 90% of residents can trace their ancestry to Kwangtung province in southeast mainland China. They are of the Hakka group of Chinese, while the remaining 10% are made up of Chinese from Fukien province and the original aborigine groups.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=cee911d7-8e50-45d9-8386-6e103edea40c&CatId=1

去年五月中旬,國內報端出現了一則短短的新聞,大意是:台東一位山胞不知蘭為何物,上山採集滿滿大布袋的「野草」餵豬!
Last May a minor news item made the local papers: A Taiwan aborigine who didn't know what orchids were was said to have collected a big sackful of them from the mountains near Taitung to feed his pigs with.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=2f8a077e-5f35-4c75-bc6c-ee1bca4b04fd&CatId=1

他怎么也想不通,他是在无人管理的深山野林里砍的,何罪之有?山胞都为他鸣不平,一致谴责所谓的法律。法律的制定,缺乏从山地实际出发,无视山胞的生活形态和传统习俗。法律的制定,也没有征求山胞 的意见,事后又缺乏宣传,山胞对法律有陌生感、恐惧感和疏离感,这对法律来说,是一种莫大的讽刺。
林承璜《福建日报》1994-1-20「台湾山地文学的里程碑:读田雅各《拓拔斯·搭玛匹玛》」

这时,那几个山地人都坐在离火很近的地方,靠在一堆儿打盹。火光照亮了他们的脸,这三个山胞 都很年轻,脸上没有野性的代表——刺青。显然他们也被文明所陶冶了。在这火光之下,以黑夜的山林为背景,她觉得他们都很漂亮。或者他们混杂了一些荷兰人的血统,眼眶微凹而额角和颞骨都比内地人高些,但他们确实是很漂亮的!
琼瑶《船》
Diff:
# 山地同胞 山地同胞 [shan1 di4 tong2 bao1] /Taiwanese indigenous peoples/Taiwanese aborigine/indigenous Taiwanese person/
# 山胞 山胞 [shan1 bao1] /Taiwanese indigenous peoples/Taiwanese aborigine/indigenous Taiwanese person/abbr. for 山地同胞[shan1 di4 tong2 bao1]/
#
#
+ 山地同胞 山地同胞 [shan1 di4 tong2 bao1] /(dated) Taiwanese indigenous peoples/Taiwanese aborigine/
+ 山胞 山胞 [shan1 bao1] /(dated) Taiwanese indigenous peoples/Taiwanese aborigine/abbr. for 山地同胞[shan1 di4 tong2 bao1]/

Change log entry 70463
Processed by: richwarm (2020-08-26 23:35:55 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 62678 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【LAC】
姑且用来。
|~宽心
|~度日。

【规范】
副 姑且用来
| 聊以解嘲
| 聊以充饥。


她和她婴儿说话聊以自娱。
She diverted herself with talking to her baby.

不考了。我在考虑嫁个公务员聊以自慰。
No. I'm considering marrying a civil servant just to console myself.

等待似乎无穷无尽,我只好听着虫兽的动静声响,试着辨别是何种物事,聊以解闷。
The waiting seemed interminable and was relieved only by my attempts to identify the little stirrings and noises of animal life that I could hear.

我们很难想象,每天仅能以面条聊以充饥的郭先生能够有气力去做任何体力活。
It was already hard for us to imagine a man who fed himself almost solely on plain noodle every day would be strong enough to handle any physical labor.

五年前,她与阿里开始关系疏远,据这位阿里的加州妻子英奇宣称,她现在美国,只能依靠食品救济券聊以度日。
The couple became estranged around five years ago, and Inge now claims to be living on food stamps in the United States.
----------------------------------

Editor:
1) 聊 here means "slightly". I've tried to convey that with the phrase "to some extent".

2) I don't think "get away with one's responsibilities" is the expression we were looking for with 聊以塞责.
"get away with ..." would be better combined with a negative expression like "... *not* fully carrying out one's responsibilities".

3) "relaxation" is lousy definition for 聊以解闷.
Here are some examples:
整个店里只有他一个人,布置也很简陋,除了剪发的必备工具外,没有风扇,也没有用于让顾客排队等待时聊以解闷的电视机或杂志。

玩游戏的时候没有什么比漫长的载入过程更让人不爽了,这个时候聊以解闷的就只有屏幕上的加载画面,我想玩家们早就习以为常。

但是前几天闲得无聊,就把这部剧找来,随性刷了几集聊以解闷,想不到开场把我怔住了! 要不是人物在说粤语,鬼都不晓得这是一部港剧!

很多家長都會給予子女手機和平板,既可以輔助學習,也可以聊以解悶,但他們下載的軟體和遊戲是否安全,就讓父母們頭痛不已。
Diff:
# 聊以 聊以 [liao2 yi3] /to try sth with the purpose of/
#
# Editor:
+ 聊以 聊以 [liao2 yi3] /to use it (or do it) for the purpose of (allaying hunger, relieving boredom etc) to some extent/
- 聊以解悶 聊以解闷 [liao2 yi3 jie3 men4] /relaxation/
+ 聊以解悶 聊以解闷 [liao2 yi3 jie3 men4] /to use it for the purpose of relieving the tedium to some extent/
- 聊以塞責 聊以塞责 [liao2 yi3 se4 ze2] /just to get away with one's responsibilities/in order to get off the hook/
+ 聊以塞責 聊以塞责 [liao2 yi3 se4 ze2] /in order to minimally fulfill one's responsibilities/in order to get off the hook/

Change log entry 70461
Processed by: richwarm (2020-08-26 08:13:53 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65006 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
n. 〈wr.〉
① commander in chief
② high Qing military officer

【Pleco】
NOUN
commander in chief; generalissimo

【LAC】
1. 军队的主帅。
| 皇帝任命他为~,领兵抗敌。
2. 清代对总督的尊称。北洋军阀的首领亦称大帅。
| ~张作霖
| 吴佩孚~。

【MoE】
1. 军队的主将。
| 《后汉书.卷四一.宋均传》:「蛮夷震怖,即共斩其大帅而降,于是入贼营,散其众,遣归本郡,为置长吏而还。」
2. 清代对总督的敬称。
| 《二十年目睹之怪现状.第七二回》:「藩台此时也朵了,垂手说道:『这个只求大帅格外设法!』」

【规范词典】
名 主帅。


你可知道,这回保驾的是张大帅⑷,张大帅就是燕人张翼德的后代,他一支丈八蛇矛,就有万夫不当之勇,谁能抵挡他,”他两手同时捏起空拳,仿佛握着无形的蛇矛模样,向八一嫂抢进几步道,“你能抵挡他么!”
> There's something else you people ought to know. The defender of the throne this time is none other than General Zhang. And General Zhang is a descendant of the famous Yan general Zhang Fei. He has an eighteen-foot spear and courage enough to take on ten thousand men! Who can stand up to a man like that? ” He raised his two hands and held them apart, slightly cupped and parallel, as if they grasped an invisible eighteen-foot spear. He lunged toward Sister Bayi and demanded, “Can you stand up to him? ” (Lyell)
> I'd have you know the new Protector is General Zhang, who's descended from Zhang Fei of the former State of Yan. With his huge lance eighteen feet long, he dares take on ten thousand men. Who can stand against him?” Raising both hands as if grasping a huge invisible lance, he took a few swift paces towards Widow Ba Yi. “Are you a match for him?” (Yangs)
> and it’ll be Zhang Xun, the emperor’s own general, Zhang Fei’s own descendant, at their head, taking on ten thousand men at a time with his eighteen-foot lance. No one can stop him’ He bore down on Mrs Ba Yi, clenching his fists in the air, as if wielding an invisible spear: ‘No one!’ (Lovell)
鲁迅《风波》

他在本省督军署当秘书,那位大帅留的菱角胡子,就像仁丹广告上移植过来的,好不威武。
When he was a secretary at the office of the provincial military governor, the marshal's caltrop mustache was so impressive that it looked like it had been transplanted from a Jen-tan medicine advertisement.
钱钟书《围城》

三月中,宋朝廷调整了军事机构,任种师道为河北宣抚使,驻在黄河北岸的滑州,统筹两河军事。任西军大将、姚平仲的父亲姚古为河东路制置使,将兵救太原,任种师中为河北制置副使,将兵救中山、河间各地。当时称为三大帅 。
徐兴业《金瓯缺》
Diff:
# 大帥 大帅 [da4 shuai4] /(old) commanding general/commander-in-chief/(Qing dynasty) title of the governor-general/
+ 大帥 大帅 [da4 shuai4] /(old) commanding general/commander-in-chief/(Qing dynasty) title for a governor-general (provincial military governor) 總督|总督[zong3 du1]/

Change log entry 70451
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-08-24 07:52:34 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65344 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
v. bring on a beating

【MoE】
找打。如:「你少说点话,免得招打。」


知道的人都说阿Q太荒唐,自己去招打;他大约未必姓赵,即使真姓赵,有赵太爷在这里,也不该如此胡说的。
> Everybody who heard about this agreed that Ah Q had been too reckless, that he had gone looking for a beating, for more than likely he wasn't named Zhao in the first place. And supposing he was? What with Master Zhao living right there in the area, he shouldn't have been dumb enough to say so. (Lyell)
> All who heard this said Ah Q was a great fool to ask for a beating like that. Even if his surname were Zhao — which wasn't likely — he should have known better than to boast like that when there was a Mr. Zhao living in the village. (Yangs)
> When news of the incident got about, everyone declared that this time Ah-Q had gone too far, that he had been asking for his beating. Likely as not, he was about as closely related to Mr Zhao as he was to the emperor. And even if they were related, he shouldn't have shot his big mouth off about it. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》

燕少玉深深呼出一口气,好似减轻了内心不少负担。拍回凤环,缓慢的转过身来,道:“那边的人可清理光了?”盲圣略一沉思,方想开口,拔山神牛刚已抢先道:“他娘的,只来了十几个不中用的龟孙子,那里招打 ,早就死光了,俺只道这里还有热闹,却不想也是冷清清的。”
雪雁《生死剑》

沙成山冷冷的道:“少来!你会为你的敌人设想?姑娘,你别再啰嗦了,快说!”女子重重的道:“好,我说,她母子被囚……被囚……”沙成山已不耐的举起手来,道:“你在招打 ?”女子道:“在水中央,在山之巅!”沙成山猛一怔,咬牙道:“你真是不想活了?那就休怪沙某出手了!”
《柳残阳》断刃
Diff:
+ 招打 招打 [zhao1 da3] /to ask for a beating/

Change log entry 70441
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-08-23 08:07:25 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65432 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
v.o. 〈trad.〉 use a tabooed name

【Pleco】
VERB
1 DATED defy by mentioning the name of the superior
| 古时候, 直呼皇帝名字是犯讳的。
| It was considered irreverent to call the emperor’s name in ancient times.
2 violate a taboo
| 你偏偏要提他出丑的事, 这不是成心犯讳吗?
| Aren’t you putting your foot in it by mentioning that scandal of his?

【LAC】
1. 旧指不避尊长的名讳。
| 古代官名~,是很忌讳的。
2. 犯忌。
| 坐船不能说「翻」,否则就~了。

【MoE】
不避尊长的名讳。
| 《南史.卷二三.王亮传》:「下官以犯讳被代,未知明府讳。」

【规范】
1 动 旧指不避讳尊长的名讳。
2 动 犯忌。

一犯讳,不问有心与无心,阿Q便全疤通红的发起怒来,估量了对手,口讷的他便骂,气力小的他便打;然而不知怎么一回事,总还是阿Q吃亏的时候多。
> Whether it was intentional or not, if anyone should violate this taboo, Ah Q would seethe with anger until every last one of his scabies scars would flush its deepest red. Then he would size up his opponent: if it happened to be someone who stuttered so badly that he couldn't get the second word out after the first, Ah Q would curse him up one side and down the other; if it was someone so puny and weak that he could hardly stand, Ah Q would start a fight. And yet, strange to tell, in all such encounters Ah Q somehow still managed to come out the loser more often than not. (Lyell)
> Whenever this taboo was disregarded, whether intentionally or not, Ah Q would fly into a rage, his ringworm scars turning scarlet. He would look over the offender, and if it were someone weak in repartee he would curse him, while if it were a poor fighter he would hit him. #3Yet, curiously enough, it was usually Ah Q who was worsted in these encounters, (Yangs)
> Any flaunting of the taboo - whether deliberate or accidental - provoked first the controversial scars to glow a furious red. Ah-Q would then size up his adversary: the dull-witted he would subject to a tongue-lashing; the weak he would punch in the nose. The curious thing, though, was how often -in fact, almost always - Ah-Q came off worse. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》

刘泰保若有所感他说道:“前些日子住在店里的那位仇大哥,我看就是条好汉,你爹也看出了他是个非凡的人物,他性情又十分豪爽重义。可惜他已经走了,要不,我们去求他相助,他定会慨然应允的。”
蔡幺妹点头附和道:“爹生前曾多次背后向我说起过那位仇大哥,说他有如一只卧虎,是个真正的英雄好汉,只是不明他的来路。爹还一再告诫我休去探他身世,说这是‘犯讳 ’的。要是他还在店里,我就去求他。”
聂云岚《玉娇龙》

有了上海的租界,——那时叫作“洋场”,也叫“夷场”,后来有怕犯讳 的,便往往写作“彝场”——有些才子们便跑到上海来,因为才子是旷达的,那里都去;君子则对于外国人的东西总有点厌恶,而且正在想求正路的功名,所以决不轻易的乱跑。
鲁迅《上海文艺之一瞥》

秦始皇名政,秦人连“正”字都要避讳,正月是改称“端月”。他们却用了“匡正”这个动词,故意来犯讳 ,表示是秦始皇自己的口气,使扶苏和蒙恬不得怀疑。
郭沫若《秦始皇将死》
Diff:
+ 犯諱 犯讳 [fan4 hui4] /to use the tabooed name 名諱|名讳[ming2 hui4] of hierarchical superiors (old)/to violate a taboo/to use a taboo word or character/

Change log entry 70438
Processed by: richwarm (2020-08-23 00:44:35 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64581 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
p.w. the region beyond Shanhaiguan

【Pleco】
NOUN
beyond the Pass

【LAC】
指山海关以东地区;也指嘉峪关以西地区。

【MoE】
关口以外的地区:① 山海关以东、以北的东北地区。② 嘉峪关以西的地方。即今甘肃西部及新疆省地区。

【规范】
名 指山海关以东或嘉峪关以西的地区。
Diff:
# 關外 关外 [Guan1 wai4] /beyond the Pass, i.e. the region east of Shanhaiguan 山海關|山海关[Shan1 hai3 guan1] or the region west of Jiayuguan 嘉峪關|嘉峪关[Jia1 yu4 guan1]/
#
# Editor:
+ 關外 关外 [Guan1 wai4] /beyond the pass, i.e. the region north and east of Shanhai Pass 山海關|山海关[Shan1 hai3 guan1] or the region west of Jiayu Pass 嘉峪關|嘉峪关[Jia1 yu4 guan1]/
- 山海關 山海关 [Shan1 hai3 guan1] /Shanhai pass, the Eastern pass of the Great Wall/Shanhaiguan district of Qinhuangdao city 秦皇島市|秦皇岛市[Qin2 huang2 dao3 shi4], Hebei/
+ 山海關 山海关 [Shan1 hai3 guan1] /Shanhai Pass in Hebei, at the eastern terminus of the Ming dynasty Great Wall/Shanhaiguan district of Qinhuangdao city 秦皇島市|秦皇岛市[Qin2 huang2 dao3 shi4], Hebei/
- 嘉峪關 嘉峪关 [Jia1 yu4 guan1] /Jiayuguan prefecture-level city in Gansu/
+ 嘉峪關 嘉峪关 [Jia1 yu4 guan1] /Jiayu Pass in Gansu, at the western terminus of the Great Wall/Jiayuguan prefecture-level city in Gansu/

Change log entry 70430
Processed by: richwarm (2020-08-22 02:00:34 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65988 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* CEDICT's entry for 粟 does say "goose pimples" but it seems it's only in the expression 起粟 it has this meaning. The Chinese dictionaries that have this sense for 粟 also have entries for 起粟.

【MoE】
因寒冷、害怕或聽到不適的聲音,皮膚上所起的小顆粒。

【现代汉语大词典】
指皮肤起鸡皮疙瘩。


阿Q坐了一会,皮肤有些起粟,他觉得冷了,因为虽在春季,而夜间颇有余寒,尚不宜于赤膊。
> After Ah Q had sat there for a while, his skin started to break out in goosebumps—he was cold. #2 Though it was spring, the nights were still quite chilly and it was certainly no time to be going around bare-chested. (Lyell)
> After Ah Q had been sitting down for a time, he broke out in goose-flesh and felt cold, because although it was spring the nights were still chilly and not suited to bare backs. (Yangs)
> After sitting there a while, Ah-Q began to feel goose bumps prickling his skin. The spring nights were still not warm enough to go comfortably bare-chested. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》

“阿,阿!”伊诧异而且害怕的叫,皮肤上都起粟,就像触着一支毛刺虫。
鲁迅《补天》
-----------------------------------

Editor:
"goose pimples" is "UK usage" according to Oxford; and MW and AHD treat "goose bumps" as the primary term for it.

"get goose bumps" and "get goosebumps" are far more common than "get goose pimples" according to Google.
Diff:
# 起粟 起粟 [qi3 su4] /to get goose pimples/
+ 起粟 起粟 [qi3 su4] /to get goose bumps/
- 粟 粟 [su4] /grain/millet/goose pimples/
+ 粟 粟 [su4] /grain/millet/goose bumps/

Change log entry 70387
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-08-14 16:08:39 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64910 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* “to fall in line by rank” — an attempt to convey the MoE sense “依等第顺序排列。”, after ABC's fall in line (by rank/etc.).

【Wenlin】
v[erb].o[bject construction].
① fall in line (by rank/etc.)
② arrange turns of work

【Pleco】
VERB
arrange (shifts, runs, classes or grades, etc.) in order; schedule

【LAC】
按照先后顺序排列班次。
| 园区门口有~计程车,让民众方便搭乘。

【MoE】
依等第顺序排列。
| 《儒林外史.第三五回》:「过了奉天门,进到奉天殿,里面一片天乐之声,隐隐听见鸿胪寺唱:『排班』。」

【规范】
动 安排上班、值班等的先后顺序。


每天早上,礼宾部主管检查第二天订车单来安排司机的排班表.
Every morning, the Chief Concierge will review all limousine bookings for next day for arranging drivers' duty roaster.

企业要建立高效的考勤管理所面临的挑战包括:灵活合理的排班计划,劳动力成本的有效控制,实时的考勤数据审核和分析。
The challenges of attendance tracking management include the need for flexible shift or roster plans, control of labor costs and real-time attendance monitoring and analysis.

以三年級的特教班為例,8位學生,有15位愛心家長輪流排班照顧。
For example, the third-grade special education class has eight students, with 15 parents taking turns coming in to give a hand.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=50c9f5d5-60e6-4215-92fb-69574fcc5d52&CatId=1

其實不然,在真實的員警工作裡,每天24小時都有不一樣的勤務等著:指揮疏導交通、出外巡邏、深夜值班,或是前往勤區查察,以便掌握當地居民動態等,這些都是一個月前就擬好的排班規劃。
Police work is carried out every day around the clock, and involves a variety of tasks: directing traffic, patrolling a beat, working the night shift, or exploring their patch to better understand the habits of residents. This work is planned a month in advance and set down in shift schedules.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=ebaca350-412f-4c3e-a914-88934b9e10dc&CatId=1

特别是在运动初期,这些大的抗议活动很频繁,我们需要排班,因为我们不想让任何人在室外暴晒或雨中停留13个小时或更久。
Especially early on in the movement, when these large protests were frequent, we had to assign shifts to people because we didn’t want any one person to be stuck outdoors in the sun or the rain for 13 hours or longer.
https://cn.nytimes.com/china/20190821/hong-kong-protests-gillian-wong-insider/dual/

沃尔玛否认对员工有不公正待遇或曾施压要求他们接受新排班。公司发言人瑞贝卡·吕(音)说,绝大多数职工支持新的排班,而且员工可以选择继续执行旧的排班安排。
Walmart denied that it had treated its employees unfairly or had pressured them to accept the new schedules. Rebecca Lui, a spokeswoman, said that the vast majority of its work force supported the new system, and that employees were free to keep their old schedules.
https://cn.nytimes.com/china/20161117/across-china-walmart-faces-labor-unrest-as-authorities-stand-aside/dual/

======
Editor: thanks, seems like we've already added this word to CEDICT.
Diff:
# 排班 排班 [pai2 ban1] /to fall in line by rank/to assign work shifts/to schedule work shifts/

Change log entry 70373
Processed by: richwarm (2020-08-13 05:58:33 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65418 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
f.e. extremely ridiculous

【LAC】
毫无价值或意义。
| 野人献曝,~。

【MoE】
毫无价值、意义。如:「这种不论是非的作风,不值一笑。」


阿Q又很自尊,所有未庄的居民,全不在他眼神里,甚而至于对于两位“文童”也有以为不值一笑的神情。
> Since he thought so well of himself, Ah Q considered the other villagers simply beneath his notice. He went so far with this that he even looked down his nose at the village's two Young Literati. (Lyell)
> Ah Q, again, had a very high opinion of himself. He looked down on all the inhabitants of Weizhuang, thinking even the two young “scholars” not worth a smile, (Yangs)
> Ah-Q had a robust sense of his own self-worth, placing the rest of Weizhuang far beneath him in the social scale. Even the village's two aspiring young scholars - the Zhao and Qian sons - he considered with haughty contempt. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》

但如说得远大一点,人性总是一样的,无论怎么特殊,难道真有好死恶生的民族么?抓住一种国民,说他有好些拂人之性的地方,不管主意是好或是坏,结果只是领了题目做文章的八股老调罢了,看穿了是不值一笑 的。
周作人《周作人精选散文集》

冯万喜静静的瞧着寒山重,半晌,他若有所思的道:“小子,老夫想,你在武林中的名气只怕不会太小,你说只是支撑一个小小场面,大约是歉虚之言了,是么?”
寒山重垂下眼帘,缓缓的道:“名气大小不值一笑,威势强弱更属过眼烟云,前辈,人活着,需要名利点缀,但是,也只是点缀而已矣。”
冯万喜喝了声彩,大声道:“好小子,果然是个豪士!”
柳残阳《星魂》

他跑腿化钱,并不是浪费。即使那些东西是那么破烂不堪,但是想想看吧,全国里有谁,有谁,收藏着一百多家山东的小名家呢?没有第二份儿!连日本人都来参观,哼,他的这点收藏已使他有了国际的声誉!他闭上了眼,细细的,反复前后的想,想把这点事看轻,看成不值一笑 的事体。然而,这却千真万确,日本人注意到他的收藏是一点也不假。
老舍《贫血集》
Diff:
+ 不值一笑 不值一笑 [bu4 zhi2 yi1 xiao4] /of no value/worthless/

Change log entry 70250
Processed by: richwarm (2020-07-29 07:41:29 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64560 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* The only sense on most dictionaries is "to sprain".
* Of the ones I have, only 现代汉语大词典, indicates more meanings. The first corroborates CEDICT's current definition with an example. It also the only one not considered dialect by this dictionary.
* The third is the one Lu Xun seems to use and the one I was looking for, but translations vary and in some cases "limping" could be a possible translation". More quotations with translation below.
* The fourth, "克制, 忍住", I haven't seen anywhere else and I'm not adding at the moment.
* MoE redirects to 蹩躠; a word that is only defined in the same dictionary.

【Wenlin】
v. sprain (an ankle/wrist)

【Pleco】
VERB
DIALECT
sprain (one's ankle or wrist)
| 他走路不小心, 蹩了脚。
| He missed his step and sprained his foot.

【LAC】
1. 〈口〉指扭伤(脚腕等)。
| 不小心~了脚。

【MoE】
参见「蹩躠」条。

【规范词典】
动 某些地区指扭伤脚腕等
| 当心把脚蹩了。

【现代汉语大词典】
1 跛, 瘸。
|徐兴业《金瓯缺》:种师道蹩着右脚(那是在臧底河一战中被西夏人射伤, 以致成为轻微的残疾), 撩起因为拐脚走路, 因而显得不太合身的袍服。
引申为歪斜。
| 周立波《暴风骤雨》:正锅配好灶, 歪锅配蹩灶。
2 方言。扭转;扭伤。
| 丁玲《母亲》:丫头老妈都忍俊不住, 悄悄地蹩着腰。
又如:蹩痛了脚。
3 方言。躲躲闪闪地走动。
| 鲁迅《药》:他便退了几步, 寻到一家关着门的铺子, 蹩进檐下, 靠门立住了。
4 用同“憋”。克制, 忍住。
| 刘绍棠《青枝绿叶》:满囤嫂用袄袖擦把汗, 刚要说:‘从鸡叫…’满囤瞪她一眼, 就蹩了回去。
一本作“憋”。
| 郭小川《致青年公民》:谈话中夹带着蹩不住的笑声。


他便退了几步,寻到一家关着门的铺子,蹩进檐下,靠门立住了。
He retreats a few paces, finds his way to a closed store, slips in under the eaves, and takes up a position beside the door. (Lyell)
He walked back a few steps to stand under the eaves of a shop, in front of its closed door. (Yangs)
He slunk back under the eaves of a shop, leaning against its bolted door. (Lovell)
鲁迅,《药》

这人每天总在茶馆里过日,来得最早,去得最迟,此时恰恰蹩到临街的壁角的桌边,便坐下问话,然而没有人答应他。
This is a man who spends all his days in the teashop, the first to arrive and last to leave. He sidles in behind a corner table facing the street. No one answers. (Lyell)
He was one of those who spend all their time in teahouses, the first to come in the morning and the last to leave. Now he had just stumbled to a corner table facing the street, and sat down. But no one answered his question. (Yangs)
All day, every day he spent in the teahouse, always the first to arrive and the last to leave. Today, he had chosen the corner table nearest the street. Everyone ignored him. (Lovell)
鲁迅,《药》

但他并不动,因为从声音和举动上,便知道是暗暗蹩进来的打牌的老朋友黄三。
Knowing full well that the man who had sneaked up behind him could be none other than his old friend and card-playing crony Third Huang, Gao tensed his neck muscles and wouldn't let his head budge. (Lyell)
He did not move, however, knowing from the voice and action that it was his old friend Huang San, with whom he played mahjong, who had tiptoed in. (Yangs)
He chose not to honour this approach by turning round: he knew both voice and hand belonged to his old gambling partner, Huang San, who must have limped quietly up behind him. (Lovell)
鲁迅,《高老夫子》

老妈子抱了孩子从屋檐阴下蹩过去了。
Holding the child in her arms, Old Amah scurries along under the eaves of the stores. (Lyell)
Amah carried over the child, flitting under the shade of the eaves. (Yangs)
Still holding the child in her arms, the old amah scurried along in the shade beneath the eaves of houses. (Lovell)
鲁迅,《示众》
------------------------

Editor:
> MoE redirects to 蹩躠; a word that is only defined in the same dictionary
It's in Grand Ricci and HDC as well.
Diff:
- 蹩 蹩 [bie2] /limp/
+ 蹩 蹩 [bie2] /to limp/to sprain (an ankle or wrist)/to move carefully, as if evading a danger/to scurry/

Change log entry 70239
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-07-28 09:14:17 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65419 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* Unlike ABC/Pleco say, the object of 崇奉 is a deity, not a religion. LAC's example sentences are good usage illustrations: “儒家崇奉孔子”、“佛教崇奉释迦牟尼”.

【Wenlin】
v. believe in (a religion); worship

【Pleco】
VERB
LITERARY
believe in (a religion); worship

【LAC】
尊崇信奉。
| 儒家~孔子
| 道教~三清道祖
| 佛教~释迦牟尼。

【MoE】
尊敬信仰。
| 《初刻拍案惊奇.卷七》:「玄宗虽崇奉道流,那惠妃却笃信佛教,各有所好。」
| 《老残游记.第九回》:「甚则说崇奉他的教,就一切罪孽消灭;不崇奉他的教,就是魔鬼入宫。」

【规范】
动 崇敬信奉
| 破除迷信, 不再崇奉鬼神。


这是神庙的入口,这座神庙崇奉雅典娜女神。
So, this is the entrance to Parthenon that it was a temple to the goddess, Athena.

他们把耶稣作为上帝的儿子来崇奉,并公开宣讲耶稣复活的好消息。
They worshipped Jesus as the Son of God, and openly preached the good news.

为出海的船工保平安,在人们所崇奉的神灵中,又增添了一位女神,
To ensure the safety of fishermen on the sea, people began to worship a new goddess.

本文就这个问题作了一些初步的探讨。 认为道家的“道”给人们提供了终极关怀 ,这是道教崇奉老子为教主的内在根据 ;
Basing on a preliminary study of the question, this paper proposes that, the Tao of philosophic Taoism provides ultimate concern, which is the innate basis for the religious worship for Laozi as its hierarch.

關羽死後,受歷代帝王的封諡,為後世崇奉,成為釋、道、理三教之護法大神,乃係由於他忠肝義膽,言行自始至終代表著人間一種「正氣」力量。
After [Guan Yu] died, he was given posthumous titles by many emperors and was greatly revered by later generations, finally becoming a major deity of Buddhism and Daoism due to his virtue and patriotism, and his exemplary speech and behavior, which was unfailingly proper and just.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=442d37e6-987c-493c-8d12-e7d676111d7a&CatId=1

天帝教崇奉的天帝,就是化生宇宙的上帝。
The Lord in Heaven worshipped by T'ienti Teachings Association is the God who created the universe.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=d1bebfcf-d0c1-4ea5-9805-898a1a3811f8&CatId=1
Diff:
+ 崇奉 崇奉 [chong2 feng4] /to believe in (a deity or other supernatural being)/to worship/

Change log entry 70095
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-07-16 08:08:00 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64608 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
☞ 瘐毙

【Wenlin】
v. 〈wr[itten].〉 die of disease (of a prisoner)

【Pleco】
VERB
LITERARY
(of a prisoner) die of hunger or disease

【规范】
动 <文> 指囚犯因受刑、饥寒或疾病而死于狱中。


路的左边,都埋着死刑和瘐毙的人,右边是穷人的丛冢。
On the left lie the bodies of criminals who have either been executed or died in prison. Paupers are buried on the right. (Lyell)
Left of the path, executed criminals or those who had died of neglect in prison were buried. Right of the path were paupers' graves. (Yangs)
To the left of this natural boundary line were buried the bodies of the executed and those who had died in prison; to the right lay the mass graves into which the town's poor were sunk. (Lovells)
鲁迅,《药》

* * *

☞ 瘐死

【Wenlin】
v. 〈wr[itten].〉 die of hunger/disease (of prisoners)

【Pleco】
VERB
LITERARY
(of a prisoner) die of hunger or disease

【LAC】
〈书〉囚犯因饥寒而死于狱中;今亦泛称因病死于狱中。
| 今系者或以掠辜,若饥寒~狱中,何用心逆人道也(《汉书‧卷八‧宣帝纪》)。

【MoE】
囚犯因饥寒而死于狱中。今亦泛称因病死于狱中。
《汉书.卷八.宣帝纪》:「今系者或以掠辜若饥寒瘐死狱中,何用心逆人道也!」

【规范】
动 瘐毙。


由于条件太差, 好多犯人瘐死狱中.
Due to bad conditions, many prisoners died in the prison.
Diff:
+ 瘐斃 瘐毙 [yu3 bi4] /to die of hunger or disease (of a prisoner)/
+ 瘐死 瘐死 [yu3 si3] /to die of hunger or disease (of a prisoner)/

Change log entry 70084
Processed by: richwarm (2020-07-14 06:49:09 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 62432 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
〈zhòngtóu〉
【Wenlin】
attr. of vital importance; of great value

【LAC】
1. 重的一头;重要的部分。
| 他抬的是~
| 词条释义在词典中占~。
2. 作用大的;重要的。
| ~论文
| ~节目。

【规范】
1 名 分量重的一端或重要的部分
| 我抬重头
| 他的戏在全剧中占重头。
2 区别 比喻最有力或最重要的
| 重头人物
| 重头戏。

当美国国会本周进入复活节休会期时,它的一项重头工作——医疗改革——已基本得到解决。
Congress heads into the Easter recess this week with one big piece of business – healthcare reform – largely out of the way.

而最重头的故事是狼人的故事。
And the king of these stories is the story of the werewolf.

没有必要疯狂购物,几件重头的衣物和配饰就可以使你的衣橱变得春意盎然。
There's no need for a shopping spree, a few key items or accessories can transform your wardrobe into a spring sensation.

洛克达因接下来的任务是重头设计一个被称作S-3D的全新的发动机,此款发动机被用在了V-2的一系列衍生导弹上。
Rocketdyne's next major development was its first all-new design, the S-3D, which had been developed in parallel to the V-2 derived A series.

〈chóngtóu〉
(At first I assumed 重头 was a typo for 从头, and, indeed, I can't find it on any Chinese dictionary, but I can find many usage examples and discussions.)

【百度百科】
重头,指从头;词的上下片节拍完全相同的亦称重头。上述意义读
重头(chónɡ)(tóu)。
另外表达意义或作用大的;读重头(zhònɡtóu)
如:三峡工程是中国的重头工程项目。
https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%87%8D%E5%A4%B4/6574607

【百度知道】
从头开始和重头开始区别是什么?
https://zhidao.baidu.com/question/1754583587478110628.html
“重头再来”与“从头再来”有什么区别吗?
https://zhidao.baidu.com/question/116050711.html


根据一项由读者文摘发起的调查表明,通过随机并科学的甄选,超过71%的受调查者(已婚人士)说重头来过仍然会与他们的伴侣结婚。
In a survey commissioned by Reader’s Digest in 2006, through a randomized, scientific selection process, over 71% of those surveyed (who were married) said they would marry their partner again.

重头设置交叉编译器工具链可不是一项简单的任务:它包括下载源代码、修补补丁、配置、编译、设置头文件、安装以及很多很多的操作。
Setting up a cross-compiler toolchain from scratch is not an easy task: it involves downloading the sources, patching, configuring, compiling, setting up headers, installation, and much, much more.

在一天结束时,重头读一遍那张单子,问问自己,朝着每个目标我做了什么产生出可衡量的变化的事情吗?
At the end of the day, read over your list and ask yourself, Did I do anything that created a measurable change toward each goal?

喝完之后,她得旋转6周,然后用球棒击中一只啤酒罐,如果没击中,她还得重头再来。
Upon finishing she has to spin six times and then hit a beer can with the bat, if she misses she will have to start again
Diff:
+ 重頭 重头 [zhong4 tou2] /main/most important/essential/
# 重頭 重头 [chong2 tou2] /anew/from the beginning/
+ 重頭 重头 [chong2 tou2] /anew/from the beginning/(in poetry and song) repetition of a melody or rhythm/

Change log entry 70071
Processed by: richwarm (2020-07-13 02:18:23 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65937 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* I wonder if it shouldn't be shìde since sìde is usually given as the TW pronunciation for 似的; but, since Wenlin has "fēiyěsì de" that is all I can submit for now.

【Wenlin】
v[erb].p[hrase]. at lightning speed; swiftly

【MoE】
形容行走快速。
| 《老殘遊記二編.第五回》:「泰安縣裡家人知道不妥,忙向老姑子託付了幾句,飛也似的下山去了。」


小船就飞也似的驶出了港口,第二天早晨,弗兰兹便在费拉约港弃舟登岸。
The boat shot out of the harbor like a bird and the next morning Franz disembarked at Porto-Ferrajo.

就一脚踢翻了椅子,飞也似的跑出去了。
Kicking his chair aside, he dashed out of the room.

同时一片火光飞也似的从外边抢进花厅来,火光中瞧见七八个人,都拿着火把。
Just at that moment a flaring light lit up the room from outside and in the glare Tseng Tsang-hai saw several men, each with a torch in his hand.

老人男人坐在矮凳上,摇着大芭蕉扇闲谈,孩子飞也似的跑,或者蹲在乌桕树下赌玩石子。
> Using large plantain leaves for fans, the old folks and the men sat on the stools and chatted. Children darted lickety-split from place to place or squatted under the tallow trees playing toss-catch. (Lyell)
> The old folk and the men sat on the low stools, fanning themselves with plantain-leaf fans as they chatted. The children raced about or squatted under the tallow trees playing with pebbles. (Yangs)
> The elderly and the men took their seats, wielding large plantain-leaf fans and idly chatting, while the children skittered about or squatted beneath the tallow trees, tossing pebbles. (Lovell)
鲁迅《风波》
----------------------------------

Editor:

> "I wonder if it shouldn't be shìde since sìde is usually given as the TW pronunciation for 似的"

According to the (hidden) notes in the Wenlin entry, they got that entry from a source whose abbreviated name was "twf", which looks suspiciously like a Taiwanese source.
Anyway, there are websites that say it's shìde, so I'm going with that.
https://www.tongfengqu.com/km/%E9%A3%9E%E7%9A%84%E6%8B%BC%E9%9F%B3%E6%9C%AC%E4%B8%8A%E6%80%8E%E4%B9%88%E5%86%99.html
https://www.gan-ren.com/ya/%E9%A3%9E%E4%B9%9F%E4%BC%BC%E7%9A%84%E8%AF%BB%E9%9F%B3.htm
Diff:
# 飛也似的 飞也似的 [fei1 ye3 si4 de5] /lit. as if flying/very fast/
+ 飛也似的 飞也似的 [fei1 ye3 shi4 de5] /lit. as if flying/very fast/

Change log entry 70058
Processed by: richwarm (2020-07-11 11:52:58 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65437 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* Also “汽灯” in LAC, GF and 现代汉语大词典.

【Wenlin】
n. safety light

【LAC】
1. 一种戴有防风罩的手提煤油灯。
| 这盏~应该可以点到天亮。
2. 汽灯。

【MoE】
一种有罩子的手提煤油灯。多用镍或黄铜做成,不怕风吹,万一翻倒,也不致发生危险。
| 《海上花列传.第四回》:「当中挂着一盏保险灯,映着四壁,像月洞一般。」

【规范】
名 带防风罩的手提煤油灯。


“原来有保险灯在这里!”
"Oh, so that's it, there's a kerosene lamp here—no wonder!" (Lyell)
“So there is a paraffin lamp here,” (Yangs)
'Oh ... a lamp!” (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》

则生,你这孩子真像是疯了,快立起来,把那盏保险灯点上。
郁达夫《迟桂花》

里边没人应声,他们就走了进去。这两间草房通连着,南边是一条贴山炕,地下有个连着炕沿的锅台,墙上挂着保险灯 、鞭子和水壶。
浩然《夏青苗求师》

后来,他又找来三个农民一起进行挖掘。他们打开墓门,发现里面黑洞洞的。大家都害怕,谁也不敢进去。又过了一两天,他们决定打着火把和煤油保险灯 进去探险。
《人民日报》 2000年
-----------------------------------

Editor: I didn't quite understand what this "protective cover" was supposed to be.
I mean, all kerosene lamps have a glass chimney, if that's what "protective cover" refers to.
Wp ~ "Kerosene lamps have a wick or mantle as light source, protected by a glass chimney".
So I figured maybe the "cover" is just the glass chimney that all kerosene lamps have (except perhaps in ancient times).
Grand Ricci's definition implies just that:
"literally, secure lamp : kerosene lamp."
i.e. 保险灯 is just another name for kerosene lamp (it seems to me).

There's a picture of a 保险灯 on this page.
It seems to be exactly what I'd call a "kerosene lamp".
It has a glass chimney. I wouldn't describe that as a "protective cover".
http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=497219&do=blog&id=1053702

Compare that 保险灯 with the kerosene lamps on this page:
https://www.dhgate.com/product/retro-classic-kerosene-lamp-kerosene-lanterns/443184015.html#seo=WAP
Diff:
# 保險燈 保险灯 [bao3 xian3 deng1] /kerosene lamp with protective cover to shield from the wind/
+ 保險燈 保险灯 [bao3 xian3 deng1] /kerosene lamp/

Change log entry 70057
Processed by: richwarm (2020-07-11 10:58:40 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64237 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* I think Wenlin/ABC's definition “endure humiliation to carry out an important mission” corresponds to the expression 忍辱负重, not to 负重 by itself.

【Wenlin】
v[erb] o[bject construction]
① shoulder a heavy load
② endure humiliation to carry out an important mission

【Pleco】
VERB
1 carry a heavy load on one's back
| 负重训练
| weight training
2 shoulder a heavy task

【LAC】
1. 背(ㄅㄟ bēi)着重物。
| ~行军
| ~竞走。
2. 担负重任。
| 忍辱~。

【MoE】
背负重物或担负重任。如:「忍辱负重」。
|《文选.王融.三月三日曲水诗序》:「念负重于春冰,怀御奔于秋驾。」
| 唐.李善.注:「明君之御民,若乘奔而无辔,履冰而负重也。」

【规范词典】
1 动 背(bēi)着重物
| 负重行军。
2 动 担负重任
| 忍辱负重。
Diff:
+ 負重 负重 [fu4 zhong4] /(lit. and fig.) to carry a heavy load/to carry a heavy burden/

Change log entry 70019
Processed by: richwarm (2020-07-06 11:52:21 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65213 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Pleco】
VERB see the world; enrich one's experience
| 这次出国见了大世面。
| The trip abroad was a real eye-opener.

【Wenlin】
v.o. see the world; enrich one's experience

【LAC】
指到社会上经受磨练,增长见识。
| 在大风大浪中经风雨,~。

【MoE】
在外历练,熟知世事。
| 《红楼梦.第一六回》:「可恨我小几岁年纪,若早生二三十年,如今这些老人家也不薄我没见世面了。」

【规范】
指到社会上去熟悉情况, 增长见识。


切尔西只有五岁的时候,就开始要求去野营,说她想去见世面,去冒险。
Chelsea started pushing to go to camp when she was only five, saying she wanted to see the world and have adventures.

我们共产党员应该经风雨,见世面;这个风雨,就是群众斗争的大风雨,这个世面,就是群众斗争的大世面。
We Communists ought to face the world and brave the storm, the great world of mass struggle and the mighty storm of mass struggle.

我才是不见世面的乡下女孩子呢。
I am just an ignorant country girl!

你是见过世面的人。
You are a sophisticate.

他总是演那个见过世面的经验丰富的人。
He 's always acting the experienced man having seen everything .

如果你总是呆在家里,就见不到世面。
You won't see life if you stay at home for ever.

他是一个没有见过世面的人,就他所知,世界无非只像井口那么大而已。
He is a person with a very limited outlook.To the best of his knowledge, the world is just as large as the mouth of a well.

「挖遺址跟種莊稼有何不同?」遠來的訪客沒頭沒腦地問道。老董嚇了一跳,隨即很「見過世面」地,慢條斯理地答道:「沒啥不同。」沉吟了一下,又說:「挖遺址仔細些。」
"What's the difference between planting crops and digging at an archaeological site?" inquires an unthinking visitor. Old Dong is startled for a second, then looks disgusted at the foolishness of the query. He slowly replies, "No difference." He ponders for half a beat, then adds: "You have to be a little more careful digging up old sites
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=c7f09414-65bf-4333-97d1-9e7a3c30e126&CatId=1

「台客」一詞從何而來,如今已不可考。目前一般認為最早是起於1960年代,外省第二代幫派份子對閩南人與客家人等「非我族類」的歧視用語,意指對方國語不標準、穿著土氣、沒水準、不入流、沒見過世面等,是族群優越感下不折不扣的貶抑詞。楊德昌導演以這個時代為背景,探討外省眷村文化的電影《牯嶺街少年殺人事件》裡,便曾多次出現這個用語。
The origins of the term "Taike"--literally "Taiwan guest" or "Tai guy"--are obscure. It is generally believed to have been in use in the 1960s at the earliest, when gangs of second-generation immigrants from the mainland would use it as a slur against Fujianese and Hakka people whose families had already been in Taiwan for many generations. It carried a sense of superiority against what the gangs saw as the unfashionable, unworldly country bumpkin locals who couldn't speak "proper" Mandarin. The term is heard many times in the Edward Yang film A Brighter Summer Day, which takes the immigrant village culture of that era as its backdrop.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=cdfa6ca7-37e9-4ce9-bdd8-80ed631f9211&CatId=1


第一回是民国元年我初到北京的时候,当时一个朋友对我说,北京戏最好,你不去见见世面么?
> My initial exposure was during the first year of the Republic, when I first arrived in Beijing. A friend said, "Beijing Opera is the best there is. Why not go and broaden your horizons a bit?” (Lyell)
> The first time was in 1912 when I was new to Beijing. A friend told me Beijing had the best opera and that seeing it was an experience not to be missed. (Yangs)
> The first time was in 1912, the first year of the Republic. I'd just arrived in Beijing, and a friend told me I should go, just for the experience - Beijing opera being the best in the country. (Lovell)
鲁迅《社戏》

然而未庄人真是不见世面的可笑的乡下人呵,他们没有见过城里的煎鱼!
> "On the other hand, I gotta remember that next to me, Wei Villagers are just a bunch of hicks. They've never even seen how bigheads are fried in town. (Lyell)
> But the Weizhuang villagers were really ignorant rustics who had never seen fish fried in town. (Yangs)
> Though the people of Weizhuang, of course, were still village idiots: think of it - they didn't even know how people fried fish in town! (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》
--------------------------------

Editor: 世面 is usually combined with 见, but often something comes between the two words.
Other times 世面 is the object of another verb such as 接觸 or 識 (rather than 见). (See examples below.)
So it's useful to have a good definition of 世面, and I've taken the opportunity to tweak our definition.

I feel that "to gain real-world experience" is a bit misleading in that it sounds too much like the situation where someone puts the skills they learned in the classroom into practice in a workplace setting. Also, I think "worldly-wise" matches 见过世面 all right, but isn't quite apt for 见世面.

Examples:

你家孩子會長成不識世面的土包子
your kids are going to grow up to be provincials ignorant of the larger world,

讓沒有見過世面的新婚妻子儘量看個夠。
It was a real eye-opener for the untraveled young Chang-mei.

往返應酬必定帶著她,要她接觸世面,做為機會教育的一環。
As the youngest daughter in her family, and her father's chosen successor, she was taken along whenever he went to see friends or acquaintances, so she could get a feel for the larger world from an early age.

他覺得「創意」這東西,是要歷經不同世代文化、不同歷練、見過不同世面後,才能醞釀出來的;
He feels that "creativity" develops after encountering different cultures and experiences, and seeing different sides of the world around us.
Diff:
# 見世面 见世面 [jian4 shi4 mian4] /to see the world/to gain real-world experience/to broaden one's horizons/to be worldly-wise/
+ 見世面 见世面 [jian4 shi4 mian4] /to see the world/to broaden one's horizons/
- 世面 世面 [shi4 mian4] /aspects of society/the world/
+ 世面 世面 [shi4 mian4] /the wider world/diverse aspects of society/

Change log entry 70017
Processed by: richwarm (2020-07-06 07:48:51 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65215 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
v. select; choose

【Pleco】
VERB choose; pick; select

【LAC】
〈书〉挑拣;选择。
| ~精粟
| ~吉日。

【MoE】
选择。
| 《儒林外史.第一○回》:「央媒拜允,一是二位老爷拣择;或娶过去,或招在这里,也是二位老爷斟酌。」
| 《红楼梦.第五五回》:「若是凤姐前,他便早已献勤,说出许多主意,又查出许多旧例来,任凤姐儿拣择施行。」

【规范】
动 <文> 挑选
| 拣择精粟。

他们想要休息的时候,就把竹扁担横在地上,自己坐在上面,随便拣择担里的过嫩的藕枪或是较老的藕朴,大口地嚼着解渴。
When resting, they lay down their bamboo pole, sit on top of it and casually choose an extra-tender lotus root "spear" or a rather older "blunt knife" and chew large mouthfuls of it to quench their thirst.

時移勢轉,張騫時代已然遠離,人們走進了地球村,托WTO之福,許多世界公民可以不時在千奇百怪的蔬果花卉海鮮之間從容揀擇
Times change. Zhang Qian's day is long gone, and the global village is upon us. Thanks to the WTO, many citizens of the world can pick and choose from a dazzling array of fruits, vegetables, flowers and seafoods.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=e637d183-64e3-4578-ba8d-b9efc5d6be9d&CatId=1

隆年間,回人金天柱,見「各教莫能思吾教之行事,蓄疑團於千百年矣而莫釋,……有謂不遵正朔,私造憲書,……有謂異言異服,揀擇飲食。甚者謂齋仍如葷,白日何故不飲食?又謂禮拜不知所拜何神,而夜聚曉散,男女雜遝……種種疑案,皆莫能釋然。」而推其原因,皆因「未學吾教之書」。
The Qianlong era Muslim Jin Tianzhu said: "Other religions have found us inexplicable for thousands of years. Some say we are unorthodox, and have made up our rules. They say we speak strangely, wear strange clothes, and have a strange diet. They don't know which god we worship. They say we meet at night, and break up in the morning, that men are mingling with women. These doubts are all because there have been no explanations." The reason for the misconceptions was that "People haven't studied our books."
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=b154cbd3-fe83-4385-8a2a-5db67f3e8dc7&CatId=1


母亲对我说,凡是不必搬走的东西,尽可以送他,可以听他自己去拣择。
Mother said that we ought to see to it that he got as much of what we weren't going to take with us as possible. So we told him to take whatever he wanted. (Lyell)
Mother said that we should offer him all the things we were not going to take away, letting him choose for himself. (Yangs)
Anything we didn't need to take with us, Mother said, we should give him; he could take whatever he wanted. (Lovell)
鲁迅《故乡》
Diff:
# 揀擇 拣择 [jian3 ze2] /(literary) to select/to pick/to chose/
+ 揀擇 拣择 [jian3 ze2] /(literary) to select/to choose/

Change log entry 70015
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-07-06 06:16:36 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 62672 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
v. prepose ◆n. preposition- ◆attr. ①prepositional ②pre-



哪一位元组范围可以做为前置位元组则根据使用的字码页。
Which ranges of bytes can be lead bytes depends on the code page in use.

本文根据这些特点,对英语名词词组中形容词和分词做前置修饰语的种种限制作出了解释。
Based on there features, the paper develops an account for the constraints on adjectives and participles as premodifiers in English noun phrase

双引号支持转义序列使用一个前置反斜杠(\)并支持在字符串中使用 #{}操作符计算表达式。
Double quotes allow escape sequences that use a leading backslash ( \ ) and also allow evaluation of expressions within the strings using the #{} operator.

这是超低噪音,高净空前置可容纳自己,对昂贵的独立精品风格的前置放大器甚至。
These are ultra low noise, high headroom preamps that can hold their own, even against expensive standalone boutique-style preamps.

同样的设计也可以应用到法拉利的前置和中置引擎车辆中。
The same design could be used in both Ferrari’s front and mid-engined cars.

决定您要整数值显示多少个前置字元零。
Determine how many leading zeros you want the integer value to display.

喷雾轴流风机的基础上,开发研制了一种前置式喷雾加湿风机。
In this paper, a new kind humidifying fan with pre-fixed spraying nozzles has been developed on the basis of original axial fan.

我还做了些别的调查,发现一篇有趣的附带YouTube视频的博客文章是关于为何肯摩尔的前置式洗衣机会坏掉的。
I did some more research and found this interesting blog article with YouTube video about why Kenmore Front Load Washers Fail.

另外一个开发者TotalImmersion则发布了“魔镜”应用。该应用使用iPad前置摄像头,允许用户“搭配”各式各样的服装,发型及配饰。
Another developer, Total Immersion, has come up with Magic Mirror, a clever use for that front iPad camera that lets users “try on” various outfits, hairdos and accessories.

前置放大器和基线噪声水平均接近国外最好水平。
The system approaches previously reported systems in terms of preamplifier noise and the base line noise level.

当然对含有部份函数的每个表示式,您必须核实参数是否满足对应的前置条件。
You must of course verify , for every expression involving partial functions, that the arguments satisfy the corresponding preconditions.

合约还有几个前置条件,要求客户传递给withdraw()和deposit()的参数大于或等于0。
The contract also has preconditions that require clients to pass in an amount greater than or equal to zero to both withdraw() and deposit().

大多数语言的冠词都是前置的。
The articles are preposed in most languages.

这个前置的液晶屏除了让被拍摄者看到自己的样子,还有许多其他功能。
This front LCD performs various functions in addition to showing people what they look like.

然而由于种种原因,前置程序往往徒具形式。
However, because of various reasons, the preparatory process is often a formality.
Diff:
+ 前置 前置 [qian2 zhi4] /to place before/frontal/leading/pre-/

Change log entry 69990
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-07-03 13:42:23 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65065 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
v[erb].p[hrase].
〈wr.〉
① in a certain amount
② like this

【Pleco】
PRONOUN
LITERARY
1 so; such; in this way; like that
| 泉水清如许。
| The spring water is so clear.
2 so much; so many
| 枉费如许工力
| have wasted so much labour

【MoE】
1. 若干、有些。如:「如许钱」。
2. 如此、这样。
| 《南史.卷七二.文学传.卞彬传》:「徒有八尺围,腹无一寸肠,面皮 如许厚,受打未讵央。」
| 宋.范成大〈盘龙驿〉诗:「行路如许难,谁能不华发。」

【规范】
<文>
1 代 如此; 这样
| 成绩辉煌如许。
2 代 这么些; 这么多
| 破费如许钱财。


我素不知道天下有这许多新鲜事:海边有如许五色的贝壳;西瓜有这样危险的经历,我先前单知道他在水果电里出卖罢了。
> I had never dreamed that the world was so full of so many new and marvelous things. Just to think that the seashore had all those wonderful colored shells to offer! And even watermelons had a danger-filled story behind them that I'd never suspected. All I'd known was that you buy them in fruit stores. (Lyell)
> I had never known that all these strange things existed: at the seashore were shells all the colours of the rainbow; watermelons had such a dangerous history, yet all I had known of them before was that they were sold in the greengrocer's. (Yangs)
> I still had so much to discover: seashells of every colour, dangerous goings-on around watermelons ... Until then, they'd just been something you bought at a fruit stall. (Lovell)
鲁迅《故乡》


你是怎样在如许热的天气下连结凉快的?
How do you remain so cool in such hot weather?

当咱们经过那家价格昂贵的餐馆时,父亲催咱们快走,他说在如许高档的地方用餐是大大超过咱们的经济能力的。
As we passed the expensive restaurant, father hurried us along saying that it was well beyond our means to have dinner at such a fancy place.

我不确定是否有如许的资料存在。
I am not sure such data does exist.

我们伟大的祖国从来没有像今天如许繁荣富强。
Never has our great motherland been so prosperous as it is today.

如许多其他物理量一样,物体的质量可用几种不同的方法来测量。
As with many other physical quantities, the mass of a body can be measured in several different ways.
Diff:
+ 如許 如许 [ru2 xu3] /(literary) like this/such (as this)/this much/these many/

Change log entry 69989
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-07-03 13:32:13 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64798 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
f.e. halt; Halt!

【Pleco】
VERB
1 halt
| 立定!
[word of command] Halt!
2 (-//-) stand firm
| 立定脚跟
| gain a foothold; become established
3 resolutely determine
立定志向
set one’s resolve

【LAC】
1. 停下脚步;站定。
| ~脚跟
| ~跳远
| 人们都~了围着看。
2. 军事或体操口令,命令队伍或个人停止前进并就地立正。
| ~!向右转!

【MoE】
1. 停下不动。
| 《儒林外史.第四九回》:「轿子冲着大门立定,只见大门里粉屏上贴着红纸朱标的『内阁中书』的封条。」
2. 立意决定。
| 《红楼梦.第七七回》:「王夫人问之再三,他三人已是立定主意,遂与两个姑子叩了头,又拜辞了王夫人。」

【规范】
1 动 停住脚步; 站住
| 立定跳远。
2 动 军事或体操口令, 命令队伍或个人停止前进并就地立正。
3 动 拿定; 确定
| 立定意向
| 立定主张。

上校命令道:“立定!”
The colonel ordered "Halt!"

全排注意, 立定!
Platoon, halt!

大家立定,他也许还走; 大家已走,他也许多站一会儿; 他似乎听不见那施号发令的锣声。
When everyone stops he keeps going, when everyone moves forward, he remains still, as if he does not hear the commands clashed out on the gong.

最后,亚洲各个经济体系必须立定决心,矢志在国际货币基金和其他多边组织的协助下,进行重组和改革。
Finally, Asian economies must maintain their resolve and determination to restructure and reform with the help of the IMF and other multilateral agencies.

(...)看見在台的東南亞人士因資訊不足而惶惶不安,甚至染病致死的情形,隨即立定投身媒體圈的志向。
The lack of access to information even caused some of them to contract SARS and die. Immediately, it became Tan’s ambition to work in news media.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=3ae93b52-c1dc-4bbb-8ca5-9ef407eb4434&CatId=1

孩子们跑出庙外也就立定,牵着手,慢慢地向自己的家走去,都笑吟吟地,合唱着随口编派的歌:
Once outside the temple, the children stop running, join hands, and make their leisurely way homeward. Smiling, they put their voices together and sing, making up the words as they go along: (Lyell)
After scampering out of the temple the children came to a halt. Holding hands, they sauntered slowly home, spluttering with laughter as they sang in chorus a song they had just made: (Yangs)
Once clear of the temple, the children paused, linked hands, and slowly made their way home, giggling a few extemporized snatches of song: (Lovell)
鲁迅《长明灯》

队伍行进到离大桑树五步远时,指导员喊了“立定 ”的口令,队伍却立不定,好象惯性难收,一群熟悉的面孔凑上来。
莫言《红高粱家族》

入了站,他急忙要下去,又不敢跳车,走到车门又走了回来。刚回来,车立定 了,他赶紧又往外跑,恰好和上来的旅客与脚夫顶在一处,谁也不让步,激烈的顶着。
老舍《集外》

看我们同时代者的画,也着实看得不少了,可是能达到像他这样的调和谐整地截取自然的地步的,却也不多。所以我就立定 了主意,想暂时站在那里,等他朝转头来的时候,可以看一看地的面貌。
郁达夫《十三夜》
Diff:
+ 立定 立定 [li4 ding4] /to stop/to halt/halt!/to hold resolutely (of a view, an aspiration etc)/

Change log entry 69985
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-07-03 06:39:26 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65938 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* 胞衣 seems far more common (295,000 Google results vs. 22,500 for 衣胞)
* Wenlin gives the pronunciation as "yībao(r)", but most dictionaries have yībāo.

【Wenlin】
n. placenta

【Pleco】
NOUN
CHINESE MEDICINE
(human) afterbirth; placenta

【MoE】
在母體中包護嬰兒的一層膜,嬰兒出生後亦從子宮流出。
| 《金瓶梅.第四○回》:「用著頭生孩子的衣胞,拏酒洗了,燒成灰兒。」
也作「胞衣」、「胎衣」。

【规范】
名 胞衣。


这时我方发觉母羊生产过后,身体内拖出来一大块像心脏似的东西,大概是衣胞吧?看上去恶心极了。
三毛《撒哈拉的故事》

立着生,产妇出血却是很多,很多平产因此变成了难产,生到半路产妇没有力气了,也没有救急的方法,母子就很容易死掉了。此外,衣胞 不下来,过去说是衣胞沾着了心。
《 人民日报》1949年08月02日

北大还是传播马克思主义的最早基地、中国共产党诞生的衣胞 之地和我党早期活动的重要场所。
《人民日报》1998年05月03日

猪出生时要求作到“三全、五防、四准备”。三全是母猪生产安全、小猪全活、全壮;五防是防止母猪流产,防止母猪吃衣胞 或小猪(母猪应多喂钙质),防止小猪生后得脐带风,防止压死小猪,防止回奶(母猪产后二天内不要大喂,并加喂一些投奶饲料);四准备是作好临产准备(禁用麦草垫窝),猪窝消毒准备(用艾子火),刀剪消毒准备,饲料准备等。
《人民日报》1960年01月11日

Editor: since it's a less common word I'll just link it to the more common one.
Diff:
# 衣胞 衣胞 [yi1 bao1] /placenta/same as 胞衣[bao1 yi1]/
+ 衣胞 衣胞 [yi1 bao1] /see 胞衣[bao1 yi1]/

Change log entry 69953
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-07-01 14:15:26 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 62633 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
v.p. ①drive; whip on; spur ②order about

【Pleco】
VERB
1 drive; whip on
2 order about
| 任人驱策
| allow oneself to be ordered about

【MoE】
差遣、鞭策。
| 《聊斋志异.卷十.神女》:「但有驱策,敢不惟命!」

【LAC】
用鞭子赶(牲畜)。比喻以压力或诱因促使行动。
| 任人~
| ~自己,力争上游。



中国此举也是受到了民族自豪感的驱策。
China is also being driven by national pride.

“在极度需要的驱策下,他才去那里偷食物” (约瑟夫·康拉德)。
"Urged by an extreme necessity, he had come there to steal food" (Joseph Conrad).

在毛泽东的嘱咐下,邓小平更介入1958年中央军委扩大会议,强势地驱策主军的彭德怀改变会议的议程,掀起「反教条主义」的最高潮。
Accordingly, Deng interfered the enlarged Military Affairs Committee conference in 1958 and urged Peng Dehuai to launch harsh attacks on the so-called "dogmatism" within the PLA.

她们的悲悼,哭泣,离去,然后又受内心的驱策,回到墓地。
They mourned, they wept, and went away, and came again, driven by their hearts to the sepulchre.
Diff:
+ 驅策 驱策 [qu1 ce4] /to urge (sb to do do sth)/to drive (sb to take an action)/

Change log entry 69952
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-07-01 14:14:26 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65459 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
n. 〈trad.〉 the three sacrifices (pig, sheep, cow)

【Pleco】
NOUN
three domestic animals (i.e. cattle, sheep, and pigs, formerly used as sacrificial offerings)

【LAC】
三种祭祀用的牲礼。古时以牛、羊、猪为三牲,今多以猪、鸡、鱼(或鸭)为三牲。

【MoE】
1. 古代祭祀用的牛、羊、豕三种牺牲。
| 《孝经.纪孝行》:「虽日用三牲之养,犹为不孝也。」
| 宋.邢昺.疏:「三牲,牛、羊、豕也。」
| 《抱朴子.内篇.道意》:「太牢三牲,曷为济焉!」
2. 俗称为鸡、鱼、豕。
| 唐.韩愈〈太学博士李君墓志铭〉:「五谷三牲,盐醯果蔬,人所常御。」

【规范】
名 古代指祭祀用的牛、羊、猪。后也以猪、鸡、鱼作为三牲, 称为小三牲。


湘潭韶山地方议决客来吃三牲, 即只吃鸡、鱼、猪
In Shaoshan, Hsiangtan County, it has been decided that guests are to be served with only three kinds of animal food, namely, chicken, fish and pork.
[毛泽东《湖南农民运动考察报告》]

中研院民族所第一任所長凌純聲在其「中國古代龜祭文化」論文中指出,今天台灣的紅龜文化,來自閩南沿海,對早期先民,口腹需求最為首要,人在世愛吃龜肉,死後亦然,活龜遂成為與三牲、五牲等量齊觀的祭祀品,台灣早年也用活龜祭祀,儀式完成後將之放走,但後來活龜不易取得,麵龜等各種替代品才出現。
In a paper entitled "Turtle Worshipping in Ancient China," Ling Chun-sheng, the first director of the Institute of Ethnology of the Academia Sinica, wrote that Taiwan's dough turtle tradition comes from the southern Fujian coast. For early Han settlers in Taiwan, putting food on the table was most important. Since people enjoyed eating turtle meat in the here and now, they figured it shouldn't be any different in the hereafter. Turtles joined oxen, sheep and pigs as one of the animals most commonly used as offerings in ceremonies honoring ancestors. At first living turtles were used in these ceremonies. After the ceremonies they would be released. But later, when it became hard to find living turtles, turtles made from flour and all kinds of other substances began to be used in their place.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=36664c19-325f-4bb2-b350-0eba71959db0&CatId=1

廟埕前,扮仙戲熱場著,村民們殺雞宰豬,備好了三牲敬果。
In front of the temple, a drama troupe playing the roles of spirits and deities is warming up the crowd, while villagers slaughter fowl and swine to prepare for a "three sacrifices" offering.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=afcccd42-2322-48b2-a53f-839781f7635d&CatId=1

首先,祭「天」時用完整的三牲,而且是生的(沒有烹煮的)。
First, a complete offering of an ox, sheep, and pig should be made when worshiping heaven, and the meat should be uncooked.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=4b171ceb-a772-4eaa-81d3-e307eb636e4b&CatId=1
Diff:
# 三牲 三牲 [san1 sheng1] /the three sacrificial animals: originally cow, sheep and pig; later pig, chicken and fish/
+ 三牲 三牲 [san1 sheng1] /the three sacrificial animals (originally cow, sheep and pig; later pig, chicken and fish)/

Change log entry 69947
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-07-01 10:43:15 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64316 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
n. written admonition to the emperor

【MoE】
臣子谏诤君上的奏书。
| 《汉书.卷八八.儒林传.王式传》:「臣以三百五篇谏,是以亡谏书。」

【汉语大词典】
向君主进谏的奏章。
| 《汉书•儒林传·王式》:「臣以三百五篇谏,是以亡谏书。」
| 唐韩翃《送夏侯校书归上都》诗:「此回将诣阙,几日谏书成。」
| 宋朱熹《送张彦辅赴阙》诗:「问君此去谈何事,袖有谏书三万字。」
Diff:
+ 諫書 谏书 [jian4 shu1] /written admonition from an official to his sovereign (old)/

Change log entry 69929
Processed by: richwarm (2020-07-01 02:10:25 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64087 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* Wenlin gives xia (neutral) as the pronunciation and that's probably how most people would pronounce it but all other dictionaries give xià, including 规范词典.
* 规范词典 has the note 「后面多带“来”。否定式为“拉不下脸”。」. I know CEDICT usually doesn't include usage or grammar notes but this is so common (virtually all examples I've seen) I wonder if it doesn't make sense to add a note here. Or maybe a 拉下脸来 entry redirecting here?

【Wenlin】
v.o. 〈coll.〉
① pull a long face
② not spare sb.'s sensibilities
③ not care about one's face

【Pleco】
VERB
1 look displeased; pull a long face; put on a stern expression
| 他听了这句话, 立刻拉下脸来。
| When he heard this, his expression immediately became stern.
2 COLLOQUIAL
not spare sb.'s sensibilities
| 拉不下脸
| be afraid of hurting sb.’s feelings
| 他办事大公无私, 对谁也能拉下脸来。
| He is perfectly fair and impartial and never tries to spare anybody’s feelings.

【LAC】
1. 不顾情面。
| 无论对谁,他都能〜来,秉公处理。
2. 露出不悦的神情;脸色难看。
| 一听说被惩戒,他立刻〜来。

【MoE】
1. 变脸色,露出不高兴的神情。如:「看到新的人事命令公告后,小陈立刻拉下脸来。」
2. 不顾面子。
| 《程乙本红楼梦.第六五回》:「贾珍也不承望三姐这等拉的下脸来。兄弟两个本是风流场中耍惯的,不想今日反被这个女孩儿一席话说的不能搭言。」

【规范词典】
1 指不讲情面
| 对坏人坏事要敢于拉下脸来。
2 露出不愉快的神情
| 他一看到损坏公物的行为, 立刻就拉下脸来了。

【百度百科】
拉下脸是一个汉语词语,读音是lāxià liǎn,是指不顾情面。也指露出不高兴的表情。
https://baike.baidu.com/item/拉下脸/2780989


以色列总理本雅明•内塔尼亚胡虽然强势,但多数人认为,他不会甘心情愿地利用自身的强势向自己阵营的强硬派拉下脸来。
Israel's prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu, is strong, but many feel he is unwilling to use his strength to face down the hardliners in his own camp.

前些日子,田守诚还对汪方亮说:“那时候,开除你党籍的决定显然是错误的,但我也不好反对,因为我和你私人关系过密。”汪方亮并不买账,立时拉下脸 来说:“胡扯!首先是原则。应该说的,就要说。什么私人关系不私人关系,我不承认和你有什么私人关系。”
张洁,《沉重的翅膀》

我站身来说:谢谢你告诉我这件事,我要回家了。他说:别着急呀,现在还用得着你。你得去把奖领回来,还得出席一个招待会……我说:我哪里都不想去。那人就拉下脸 来说:合同上可有缔约双方保证合作的条款,你想毁约吗?我当然不想毁约,毁约也拿不回损失的东西,还要白白住监狱。
王小波,《未来世界》

妇女们格外高兴,她们穿上节日的盛装,戴上红花,无限喜悦地互相道喜:庆贺自己彻底解放,庆贺自己开始了新的生活。我跟妈妈商量:“要不,您先在家歇着,您年纪大……”“看你说的!”妈妈拉下脸 来不高兴地说:“你们都跃进去了,把我留在家吗?建设也有我的份!”那几天,妈妈整天地东家走,西家串,逢人便宣传人民公社的好处和妇女参加工作的意义。
《人民日报》1960年05月12日
----------------------------------------------------

Editor:
> "Wenlin gives xia (neutral) as the pronunciation and that's probably how most people would pronounce it"

I think I hear 4th tone here:
https://chinesepod.com/dictionary/english-chinese/%E6%8B%89%E4%B8%8D%E4%B8%8B%E8%84%B8

- - - - -

> /to pull a long face/to look displeased/

OK, that's fine for the 露出不愉快的神情 sense.

- - - - -

> /to not be afraid of hurting sb's feelings/to not be afraid of offending sb/

That's supposed to cover the 不讲情面 sense.

The problem I have with the proposed English definition is that both glosses express the same meaning, whereas there are in fact two different senses distinguished in the HDC definition. I'm referring to #1 and #2 below, which GF (like other dicts) combines into a single sense (不讲情面).

1. 不顾情面。
《红楼梦》第六五回
賈珍 也不承望 三姐兒 這等拉的下臉來。
2 不害羞, 不顾羞耻。
曹禺 《日出》第二幕
我拉下脸跟您说吧, 我的女人都跟我散了, 没有饭吃, 她一个人受不了这样的苦, 她跟人跑了。
3 指不高兴的表情。如:他听了这句话, 立刻拉下脸来。

In particular, HDC sense #2 is seen in examples such as the following:

a) 「紙風車要從實踐中去尋找未來的希望,」李永豐說,做下去的困難很多,但堅持下去的理由也很多;為此,紙風車的幾位大咖又得拉下臉來四處向人募款。
“Paper Windmill wants to find hope for the future via what it actually does,” says Lee. Looking ahead, the troupe sees many difficulties looming, but also plenty of reasons to press on. [the last bit was not translated but I'd say 拉下臉來四處向人募款 means they *put aside their pride* and went begging (sought funding in various quarters)]

b) 到七十年代末期,股市受到中東戰爭的影響一路狂跌,張次郎只好賣了手邊的五棟透天厝洋房,改營PIZZA店,但不受市場歡迎而失敗。時年四十八歲的張次郎,想應徵公車司機,又已超齡,到頭來邱寶珠提議夫妻倆到外頭擺小吃攤,但終究拉不下臉來,而有了小吃教學課程的想法。
"When the Taiwan market collapsed in 1990, Chang was forced to sell five multi-story properties he owned. He also started up a pizza business, which unfortunately failed. The 48-year-old Chang then planned to apply for a job as a bus driver, but discovered he was past the age limit. Chiu suggested that they open up a snack stall, but Chang felt that it would have been humiliating. Instead, he suggested teaching people to prepare snacks."
[i.e. 拉不下臉來 here is the negative of 拉下臉來 "to put aside one's pride"]

c) 说实话,他是爱你嘛,不爱你才不会开你玩笑呢,再说了,他一大男人的,拉不下脸吧,你多少给个台阶下啊。
"To be frank, he loves you. If he didn't love you, he wouldn't crack these jokes. What's more, he's a big fella, he's got his pride to consider. You need to give him a way out."
For this example, 拉不下脸 is glossed as "to be unable to take a hit to one's pride".

d) MoE's definition of 拉不下臉來:
顧及面子而不能或不好意思說或做。
如:「他拉不下臉來道歉。」

3) ABC's 3rd sense "not care about one's face", which you quoted.

In summary, the GF definition 不讲情面 ("not spare sb's sensibilities") is best divided into two senses for an English definition:
1) (where "sb" is oneself) to not care about one's own sense of pride
2) (where "sb" is someone else) to not care about sb else's pride
Diff:
# 拉下臉 拉下脸 [la1 xia4 lian3] /to pull a long face/to look displeased/to not be afraid of hurting sb's feelings/to not be afraid of offending sb/
+ 拉下臉 拉下脸 [la1 xia4 lian3] /to look displeased/to not be afraid of hurting sb's feelings/to put aside one's pride/

Change log entry 69925
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-06-30 15:06:57 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 62535 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
v.p. ① bring disaster on oneself ② have only oneself to blame

【LAC】
自己造的罪孽、犯的过错。
| 天作孽,犹可违;~,不可活。

【MoE】
自己所造的恶孽。
| 《书经.太甲中》:「天作孽,犹可违;自作孽,不可逭。」
| 《孟子.公孙丑上》:「自作孽,不可活。」



这是一次痛苦、自作孽的伤痛。
This is a grievous, self-inflicted wound.

她想他一定要把自己抛弃,心中不免痛楚惊惶,但她觉得这样的处置也并非过分,只是自作孽的报应罢了。
Although anguished and frightened by the certainty, as she deemed it, of his forsaking her, she nevertheless felt that it was no more than she deserved—a just punishment for all her misdoings.

您知道,下面这两种情形他必定得遭遇一种,“那么你怜悯他吗?”伯爵说。“我当然怜悯他,虽然他也是自作孽 。”“你是什么意思?”“据说他本来是一个海军军官,因为参加拿破仑党才坐牢的。”
大仲马(Alexandre Dumas père):基督山伯爵

说到这里,阿毛到房间外头去了c梨云叹了一口气道:“这种人那也是自作孽 ,像我那才真是命不好。
张恨水:春明外史

她们处于这样的悲运,似乎是很自然的,但在旧的社会里,她们或许会被称为可怜,薄命,然而在今天,却是自作孽、活该。
丁玲:三八节有感
Diff:
+ 自作孽 自作孽 [zi4 zuo4 nie4] /disaster one brings on oneself/to be reponsible for something bad that happens to oneself/to have only oneself to blame/

Change log entry 69924
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-06-30 14:51:20 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65450 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
v.o. 〈wr[itten].〉 weep in silence

【Pleco】
VERB
LITERARY
weep in silence
| 饮泣吞声
| swallow one’s tears; weep silent tears

【LAC】
因极度哀伤而哭不出声音的哭泣。
| ~吞声
| 独自~。

【MoE】
悲哀到了极点,以致哭不出声音来。
| 《文选.司马迁.报任少卿书》:「然陵一呼劳军,士无不起,躬自流涕,沫血饮泣,更张空拳,冒白刃,北向争死敌者。」
| 《聊斋志异.卷一.王成》:「妻因细述贫状,呜咽饮泣。」

【规范】
动 眼泪流到了嘴里。表示流泪很多, 极度悲伤
| 抱头饮泣
| 独自饮泣。


哪怕时至今日, 我仍不时饮泣.
And till this day, sometimes I cry.

没有人值得你堕泪,值得让你这么做的人不会让你饮泣。
No man or woman is worth your tears, and the one who is, won't make you cry.

我也为这分离饮泣,但这是需要的。
I too cry at this parting, but it is necessary.

我会和你一路流泪,但我不会要求你停止饮泣。
I will share your tears but I will not ask you not to cry.


兩年前的婦女節,數百名「牽手」和「婆婆媽媽」從家庭、廚房走上街頭,將一本民法親屬編修正草案送入立法院;她們拒絕再被當做「犧牲奉獻的模範婦女」來歌頌,而要替「台灣三百萬在暗夜飲泣的受害婦女」爭權益。
Two years ago on Women's Day, several hundred wives, mothers and grandmothers left their homes and their kitchens to take to the streets.
They carried with them a revised copy of the Family Law provisions of the civil code which they delivered to the Legislative Yuan.
They were rejecting having their praises sung yet again as "all-sacrificing model women," and instead were representing the rights and interests of "three million injured Taiwanese women crying in the dark."
http://candle.cs.nthu.edu.tw/totalrecall/totalrecall/fulltext.aspx?Rec=82663&Num=199703006&databaseIndex=0#1

曾經山盟海誓、恩愛有加,一朝取得功名後,則嫌棄舊愛,另攀高門。苦守誓約、哀傷飲泣的女子除了變鬼,又能奈他如何?
Once deeply devoted and sworn to love for all time, these men abandoned their old loves to gain social status. As for these women, loyal to their vows and tearfully heartbroken, how else could they take revenge except by becoming ghosts?
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=91355bbe-fc14-4867-a34a-747c5c0c94b9&CatId=1
Diff:
# 飲泣 饮泣 [yin3 qi4] /to weep in silence/
+ 飲泣 饮泣 [yin3 qi4] /(literary) to weep in silence/

Change log entry 69923
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-06-30 14:47:22 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64206 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
n. pit

【LAC】
1. 指大面积的凹陷地形。
2. 地下的孔道或洞穴。
| 昆虫藏于~。
3. 一种掘地成坑且加以覆盖的原始住所。
| 远古时代的人或许有居于~的。


周六,他的尸体安葬在南卡罗来纳州他一个女儿家中的地穴里。
He died back in December and on Saturday his body was placed in a crypt at the South Carolina home of one of his daughters.

为得到宝物,伊莎贝尔必须与那些游荡在地穴中无法安息的鬼魂作战。
Isabel will have to fight the restless spirits who haunt the crypt in order to get the artifact.

地穴尤指教堂底下用作墓穴的地穴
A crypt, especially one used for burial under a church.

多于夜间活动,炎热的白天不出地穴。以昆虫、小动物和果实为食。
"Mainly nocturnal, it spends most of the day underground in its Burrow. It feeds on insects, small animals, and fruit. "

MARTIUS:
Lord Bassianus lies embrewed here,
All on a heap, like to a slaughter'd lamb,
In this detested, dark, blood-drinking pit.
QUINTUS:
If it be dark, how dost thou know 'tis he?
马歇斯巴西安纳斯殿下僵卧在这可憎的黑暗的饮血的地穴 里,知觉全无,像一头被宰的羔羊。
昆塔斯地穴既然是黑暗的,你怎么知道是他?
William Shakespeare, Titus Andronicus

At the most remote end of the crypt there appeared another less spacious. Its walls had been lined with human remains, piled to the vault overhead, in the fashion of the great catacombs of Paris. Three sides of this interior crypt were still ornamented in this manner.
地穴 最遥远的尽头,有一个更狭小的地穴,墙壁上是成排的尸骨,一直堆到头上的拱顶,跟巴黎的大墓穴如出一辙。三面墙都是这样尸骨林立。
Edgar Allan Poe, The Cask of Amontillado

唷唷,阿雅这种动物必须住在地穴 里。洞口要小,里面要大,要用木铲掏开它,不要怕弄脏了它的皮毛,这东西就像鹅不沾水一样,皮不沾土哩。入冬时给它铺上草,那就是一个暖暖和和的小窝儿……
张炜,《你在高原》
Diff:
+ 地穴 地穴 [di4 xue2] /pit/burrow/crypt/

Change log entry 69921
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-06-30 14:20:29 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64860 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
※ 监学

【LAC】
清末在中等以上学堂设立的学官。主管学生的出入、生活起居、学习勤惰等日常行为。也作「学监」。

宣统初年,我在本地的中学校做监学⑽,同事是避之惟恐不远,官僚是防之惟恐不严,我终日如坐在冰窖子里,如站在刑场旁边,其实并非别的,只因为缺少了一条辫子!
> During the first year of Xuantong, I was supervisor of studies right here at the local high school. My colleagues avoided me like the plague and the local officials watched me like a hawk. From one end of the day to the other, I was so isolated that I might as well have been holed up in an icehouse or standing on an execution ground. And if the facts be known, there was absolutely no reason for it-except that I didn't have a queue! (Lyell)
> At the start of the Xuantong era, when I was dean of our local middle school, my colleagues kept at a distance from me, officialdom mounted a strict watch over me. I felt as if sitting all day in an ice-house, or standing by an execution ground. And the sole reason for this was my lack of a queue! (Yangs)
> The year the last emperor came to the throne – 1909, that would be – I was in charge of student affairs at my local middle school. The other teachers treated me like a leper, while the local officials watched me like hawks. Every day I felt like I was stuck in an ice house, or waiting for my own execution. And just because I had no queue (Lovell)
鲁迅《头发的故事》

在新式的小学中,我们固然可以随便到操场去玩着各样我们高兴的游戏,但那铃,在监学 手上,喊着闹着就比如监学自己大声喝吓,会扫我们玩耍的兴致。
沈从文《在私塾》

当质夫跑近他们身边的时候,八九个人中最长的那学生就对质夫拱拱手说:“对不起,对不起,请老师不要惊慌,我们此次来,不过是为搬教务长和监学 的行李来的。”
郁达夫《茫茫夜》

※ 学监

It seems the most common translation is proctor but dean, supervisor, janitor, superintendent, warden... all can be found. I don't think any of these modern positions is equivalent to a late Qing 学监/监学 who is responsible for supervising the students' “饮食起居”.

【Wenlin】
n. 〈trad.〉 educational inspector; proctor

【Pleco】
NOUN DATED proctor

【MoE】
旧称学校中管理学生的人。
| 《文明小史.第二四回》:「学监是顶要紧的差使,学生饮食起居一概要老兄照料。」

【规范词典】
名 旧时学校中负责管理学生的专职人员。 (也说监学。)


同学一阵乱,把学监请了来,赶紧就打电话找医生,幸而医院路近,又是校医,不多大一会工夫,医生就来了。据他说是不要紧,给史科莲注射了一针,又灌了一小瓶药水,人就清醒些。学监 将她移到养病室里,让她好好的养了两天,也就复原了。
张恨水《春明外史》

甚至于有的时候与同学们聚餐,“黄先生呢?”常在我的舌尖上;我总以为他是还活着。还不是这么说,我应当说:我总以为他不会死,不应该死,即使我知道他确是死了。他为什么作学监 呢?胖胖的,老穿着灰布大衫!他作什么不比当学监强呢?可是,他竟自作了我们的学监;似乎是天命,不作学监他怎能在四十多岁便死了呢!胖胖的,脑后折着三道肉印;我常想,理发师一定要费不少的事,才能把那三道弯上的短发推净。
老舍《赶集》

用德里克教授说法,自蔡元培任国立北京大学校长,北大俨如全国无政府主义基地。“没人认为蔡校长主动散播无政府思想,但其大学改革创造了让无政府百花齐放氛围。”邀吴稚晖任学监、李煜瀛教生物及法国文学、孙国璋教世界语,甚至不避嫌让刘师培教中国文学史,黄凌霜区声白成为北大学生。
https://theinitium.com/article/20190606-culture-anarchy-and-hk/
Diff:
+ 監學 监学 [jian1 xue2] /school official responsible for supervising the students (old)/
+ 學監 学监 [xue2 jian1] /school official responsible for supervising the students (old)/

Change log entry 69903
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-06-29 13:54:05 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64839 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
v.o. torture
n. 〈wr.〉 severe punishment

【Pleco】
NOUN ARCHAIC
1 severe punishment; heavy sentence
2 torture
VERB put to torture; torture

【LAC】
1. 旧时对受审者使用刑具。
| 不可私自~
| 正要~的当下,一道圣旨拯救了他。
2. 〈书〉重刑;极刑。
| 故善战者服~,连诸侯者次之(《孟子‧离娄上》)。

【MoE】
1. 重刑。
| 《书经.吕刑》:「上刑适轻,下服。」《孟子.离娄上》:「故善战者服上刑,连诸侯者次之。」
2. 用刑。
| 《老残游记.第一七回》:「话说老残看贾魏氏正要上刑,急忙抢上堂去喊了住手 。」

【规范】
动 旧指对受审人使用刑具。


据刑法看来,最要紧的自然是脑袋,所以大辟是上刑;次要便是生殖器了,所以宫刑和幽闭也是一件吓人的罚;至于髡,那是微乎其微了,然而推想起来,正不知道曾有多少人们因为光着头皮便被社会践踏了一生世。
The thing they set most store by, of course, was the head and that's why Decapitation topped the list. Next in order of importance came the sex organs and therefore Castration and Removal of the Ovaries were set up as terrifying punishments too. But when you got down to Haircutting, you were at the very bottom of the list. And yet if you think about it a little more closely, who knows how many people have been trampled underfoot for an entire lifetime precisely because they had received that lightest of light punishments! (Lyell)
Judging by the criminal code, what counted most was naturally the head, so beheading was the worst punishment. Next in importance was the sexual organ, so castration and sterilization was another fearful punishment. As for having one's hair cut off, that hardly counted; but when you come to think of it, goodness knows how many people must have been downtrodden all their lives because they had shaved heads. (Yangs)
Look at their penal codes: decapitation saved for the most hideous crimes; removal of sexual organs next. Shaving the head was right at the bottom of the list of punishments. Though I suppose we'll never know how many lives have been ruined over with the present-day world. Lovells027
鲁迅《头发的故事》

车夫看着左右无人,放低了声音说:"不是什么特使教咱们给杀了吗?姓崔的,还有一两千人都抓了进去;姓崔的掉了头!是他行的刺不是,谁可也说不上来。反正咱们的脑袋不值钱,随便砍吧!我日他奶奶的!"瑞宣明白了为什么这两天,狱中赶进来那么多人,也明白了他为什么没被审讯和上刑 。
老舍《四世同堂》

瑞宣,平日自以为颇明白日本人,不敢再那么自信了。他想不清楚,日本人在什么事情上要一成不变,在哪里又随地变动;和日本人到底明白不明白中国人与中国事。对他自己被捕的这件事,他也一样的摸不清头脑。日本人为什么要捕他呢?为什么捕了来既不审问,又不上刑 呢?难道他们只是为教他来观光?不,不能!日本人不是最阴险,最诡秘,不愿教人家知道他们的暴行的吗?那么,为什么教他来看呢?
老舍《四世同堂》

白氏,你好好想想,西门闹已经死了,金银财宝埋在地下也没有用,起出来,可以为我们合作社增添力量。不要怕,现在解放了,讲政策了,不会打你,更不会给你上刑 。你只要说出来,我保证给你记一大功。
莫言《生死疲劳》
Diff:
+ 上刑 上刑 [shang4 xing2] /severe punishment/worst punishment/to torture/

Change log entry 69881
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-06-27 13:53:52 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65756 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
f.e. may you die without sons/progeny

【Pleco】
IDIOM VULGAR
may you die sonless (or without sons); may you be the last of your line

【LAC】
断绝了子孙后代(多用于骂人)。也作「绝子绝孙」。
| 他一贯昧着良心做~的事。

【MoE】
沒有子孫後代。
| 明.朱權《荊釵記.第四三齣》:「你再不娶親,我只愁你斷子絕孫誰拜墳。」

【规范】
断绝后代, 没有子孙(常用于咒骂)。


小尼姑全不睬,低了头只是走。阿Q走近伊身旁,突然伸出手去摩着伊新剃的头皮,呆笑着,说:
“秃儿!快回去,和尚等着你……”
“你怎么动手动脚……”尼姑满脸通红的说,一面赶快走。
(...)
“这断子绝孙的阿Q!”远远地听得小尼姑的带哭的声音。
> Doing her best to ignore him, the young nun lowered her head and kept on her way. Ah Q fell in step beside her. Suddenly he reached over and fondled the skin of her shaved head.
"Hey Baldy, better hurry on back—your monk's waitin' for ya," he said with an inane smile.
"What's gotten into you? Get your filthy paws off me!" Her face flushing scarlet, the nun hurried onward.
(...)
"May you never have a son, Ah Q!" He heard the sound of the nun's sobbing voice in the distance. (Lyell)
> The little nun paid not the least attention but walked on with lowered head. Ah Q stepped up to her and shot out a hand to rub her newly shaved scalp, then with a guffaw cried, “Baldhead! Go back quick, your monk's waiting for you. . . .”
“Who are you pawing? . . .” demanded the nun, flushing all over her face as she quickened her pace.
(...)
“Ah Q, may you die sonless!” wailed the little nun already some distance away. (Yangs)
> Ignoring him, the young nun carried on her way, head bowed. Moving closer still, Ah-Q reached out to rub her shaved scalp.
'Bald as a coot!” he laughed moronically. 'Run back home to your lover-monk!”
'How dare you ...” the nun protested, her face flushed scarlet, trying to escape.
(...)
'May you die without descendants, Ah-Q!” the nun could be heard sobbing, as she fled. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》

他想:不错,应该有一个女人,断子绝孙便没有人供一碗饭,……应该有一个女人。
(...) and set Ah Q to thinking, "That's right, oughta have a woman! If I die with no son, who's gonna sacrifice a bowl of rice now and then for my ghost to eat? Yeah, gotta get me a woman!" (Lyell)
(...) and he thought, “Quite right, I should take a wife; for if a man dies sonless he has no one to sacrifice a bowl of rice to his spirit.... I ought to have a wife.” (Yangs)
'She's quite right,' he thought to himself. 'I ought to have a woman. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》

被人拿刀子逼住,这无疑是种生活。我苦笑着环顾四周,说道:小姐们,你们搞错了,我的内裤对你们毫无用处——你们谁也穿不上的。除非两个人穿一条内裤——我看你们也没穷到这个份上。你们应该去劫那位大婶的内裤。结果是刀尖扎了我一下,戳我的女孩说道:少废话,快点脱;迟了让你断子绝孙 ——好像我很怕断子绝孙似的。
王小波《白银时代》

窦平说:“你们才两个,我们人无数。同我们作对,没好结果的。以后,邵化他们要你们打小报告,就说一切没问题。井水不犯河水。不然,叫你们爹妈断子绝孙 。”
王火《战争和人》

杜大爷对着大门吐了一口唾沫,低声骂道:“麻子,你断子绝孙!”我说:“好啊,你竟敢骂我麻叔!”杜大爷说:“我骂他了,我就骂他了,麻子你断子绝孙 ,不得好死!怎么着,你告诉他去吧!”
莫言《牛》

老白婆又骂着:“说闲话,叫她嘴上长疔疮!”
黑脸老婆也骂着:“坏良心,叫她永远断子绝孙 !”
李凖《黄河东流去》
Diff:
+ 斷子絕孫 断子绝孙 [duan4 zi3 jue2 sun1] /to die without progeny/(offensive) may you die childless/may you be the last of your family line/

Change log entry 69880
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-06-27 13:52:24 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65323 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
n. beginning; start
attr. 〈lg.〉 initial

【Pleco】
NOUN
beginning; (at the) outset
| 开首语
| opening sentence

【LAC】
开头;开始时。
| ~引人入胜
| 这才是~,故事还长着呢
| ~有些羞涩。

【MoE】
吴语。指开头、起始。也作「开手」。

【规范】
名 开始的时间; 起头的部分
| 开首打得比较拘谨
| 开首写得很精彩。


影片改编自尼高拉斯史派克的畅销小说,故事开首是一间安老院,一位老先生正跟一名老妇娓娓道出笔记簿里的故事。
Based on a bestseller by Nicholas Sparks, it begins in the present with an old man reading a story from a notebook to an old lady in a home for the elderly.

这个电影,开首挺平淡, 越往后看越精彩.
The beginning of the film is very flat, but then it gets more and more interesting.

两个不同的情景,由同一个开首所引起。
Two different scenarios. Both started the same. Both ended different.


第二,立传的通例,开首大抵该是“某,字某,某地人也”,而我并不知道阿Q姓什么。
> Two. The standard format for biographies requires that you begin with something like: "So-and-so, whose courtesy name was this-or-that, was a native of such-and-such." The trouble is I don't know what Ah Q's family name was. (Lyell)
> The second difficulty confronting me was that a biography of this type should start off something like this: “So-and-so, whose other name was so-and-so, was a native of such-and-such a place”; but I don't really know what Ah Q's surname was. (Yangs)
> My second difficulty lies in how to start. Your average biography generally begins something like this: 'So-and-so - whose full name was such-and-such - was born in such-and-so.” But I have no idea what Ah-Q's surname was. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》

“我真傻,真的,”她开首说。
"I was real dumb, real dumb," she would begin. (Lyell)
“I was really too stupid, really,” she would begin. (Yangs)
'I was so stupid -' (Lovell)
鲁迅《祝福》

Editor:
- 清华开首个“医疗卫生管理博士”项目
- 肯尼亚银行展商:中国市场真大,明年来开首个办事处
Diff:
# 開首 开首 [kai1 shou3] /beginning/start/opening/
+ 開首 开首 [kai1 shou3] /beginning/start/opening/in the beginning/to start/to open/

Change log entry 69870
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-06-27 10:01:30 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65283 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
n. 〈trad.〉 novels, anecdotes, etc.

【Pleco】
NOUN DATED
novels, anecdotes, etc.

【LAC】
指古代小说、笔记、杂着之类的著作。

【MoE】
旧指小说、戏曲以及民间说唱文学等著作。


进而表明:我国历史小说由“讲史”话本向章回说部的过渡,其实是民间创作向个人创作的转变;
All this further indicates that the transition of China's historical novel, from text of story to chapter novel is indeed the change from folk literature to individual writing.

满族讲唱说部主要在氏族内以口耳相传,代代承继。
The Manchu narration-chant story-telling has been basically handed down generation after generation by mouth and ear.

《儒学世俗化及其对于民间风教之浸濡》一文,主要是以香港新界大埔海下村塾师翁仕朝(1874-1944)及其家人所藏文献(后捐赠给香港“中央图书馆”)作出的研究,翁仕朝的身份、所处时代本身就是转型时代有代表性的个案,而翁氏所藏文献,如童蒙课本、八股文教法教材范文、新旧说部 、世界地理新书、礼数仪节之书、民间文牍书启这些年来学术界一直有如何写思想史文化史文学史的讨论,也渐渐形成一些共识,那就是在注重大家和经典的同时,也要注意那些一般性或边缘性的人物和材料,就像一片植物,在乔木底下有灌木丛有花草和藤蔓,我们要知晓这片植物的丰富性,必须有一种全景性的关照。
徐雁平《文汇报》2003-9-5「眼光向下,到民间去」

1954年的一个冬日,章士钊约一个朋友上街。他们先是在前门全聚德吃了烤鸭,然后顺大栅栏直奔琉璃厂。转悠了一个多钟头,看来,今天将无功而返了。“行老,不忙走,这里新到了些说部 旧书,您老看看,有不有中意的?”店主是老朋友,见士钊要走,忙从里间抱出一捆旧书来。
陈书良《文汇报》2000-6-17「领袖知己——章士钊别传」

像你们的年龄,读小说故事是很相宜的。我从乐华口里,知道你们在高小时已读过《三国志演义》了。我国的说部之中,有名的还有《水浒传》《镜花缘》《儒林外史》《红楼梦》《老残游记》,这架上都有。
夏丏尊;叶圣陶《文心》
Diff:
+ 說部 说部 [shuo1 bu4] /(old) works of literature, including novels, plays etc/

Change log entry 69844
Processed by: richwarm (2020-06-24 01:45:31 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65375 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
n. 〈trad.〉
① disciple
② hanger-on/advisor of an aristocrat

【Pleco】
NOUN DATED
1 pupil; disciple; follower
2 hanger-on of an aristocrat; follower

【LAC】
1. 生徒;弟子。
2. 〈书〉食客,寄食在贵族豪门家并为之效劳的门客。
| 孟尝君~数千。

【MoE】
1. 弟子。
| 《礼记.檀弓上》:「夫子闻之曰:『谁与哭者?』门人曰:『鲤也。』」
| 《文选.曹丕.与吴质书》:「痛知音之难遇,伤门人之莫逮。」
2. 守门人。
| 《公羊传.襄公二十九年》:「祭阍者何?门人也。」
3. 门下客。
| 《战国策.齐策二》:「见孟尝君门人公孙戍曰:『臣郢之登徒也,直送象床,象床之直干舍。』」

【规范】
1 名 门生①[名 旧时指跟从老师或前辈学习的人; 弟子]。
2 名 门客①[名 门下客; 食客。即寄食在贵族豪门家里并为他们效劳的人。如毛遂是战国时赵国公子平原君赵胜的门客。]。


在朱熹门人中,陈淳被认为是多有发明和创见的一位。
Among Zhu Xi's disciples, Chen Chun is considered to be one who had more inventions and original idea.

在《明儒学案》中,黄宗羲认为周海门是罗近溪的门人而将其列入泰州学派。
In the book of Confucians in the Ming Dynasty written by Huang Zongxi, Zhou Haimen was listed in the school of Taizhou as the disciple of Lou Jinxi.

子曰:「参乎吾道一以贯之。」曾子曰:「唯。」子出。门人问曰:「何谓也」曾子曰:「夫子之道,忠恕而已矣。」
Confucius said: "Shan, my Tao is penetrated by a single thread."Tseng Tzu said, "Yes."When the Master left, some disciples asked what he meant. Tseng Tzu said, "Our master's Tao is to be sincere and fair, and that's it."


至于其余,却都非浅学所能穿凿,只希望有“历史癖与考据癖”的胡适之先生的门人们,将来或者能够寻出许多新端绪来,但是我这《阿Q正传》到那时却又怕早经消灭了。
> As to the rest, well, that's beyond the scope of a man of shallow scholarship like myself. I can only hope that the disciples of Mr. Hu Shi, who describes himself as having a "weakness for historical research coupled with an addiction to textual criticism," will be able to ferret out new clues at some time in the future. But by that time I'm afraid my "Ah Q—The Real Story" will have long since passed out of existence. (Lyell)
> As for the other problems, it is not for such unlearned people as myself to solve them, and I can only hope that disciples of Dr. Hu Shi, who has such “a passion for history and research,” may be able in future to throw new light on them. I am afraid, however, that by that time my “True Story of Ah Q” will have long since passed into oblivion. (Yangs)
> What remains to be known lies beyond the superficial capabilities of amateurs to unravel; and I can only hope that in future the disciples of a dedicated erudite such as Mr Hu Shi will hunt out new clues, in their relentless quest to further human knowledge, thoroughly obliterating what little achievement my Real Story of Ah-Q may constitute. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》
-------------------------------------

Editor: One doesn't speak of people being *on* another person's home.
They can be "at" their home or "in" their home, but not "on" it.

For example, I found this on the Web: "He was known to look down upon carrying drinks saying I have servants at my home to do all this."
That sounds natural, but it sounds wrong if you say "I have servants on my home to do all this."
Diff:
# 門人 门人 [men2 ren2] /disciple/follower/hanger-on (on an aristocrat's home)/
#
- 門人 门人 [men2 ren2] /disciple/follower/hanger-on (on an aristocrat's home)/
+ 門人 门人 [men2 ren2] /disciple/follower/hanger-on (at an aristocrat's home)/

Change log entry 69843
Processed by: richwarm (2020-06-24 01:33:47 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65322 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* Following GF over ABC where the definitions differ.

【Wenlin】
n[oun].
①〈trad.〉 official charged with checking on public opinion
② storyteller

【LAC】
稗官:古代专为帝王讲述街谈巷语、故事等的小官
[in the definition for 稗官野史]

【MoE】
本指小官,后世沿称小说家为「稗官」。
| 《汉书.卷三○.艺文志》:「小说家者流,盖出于稗官。」
| 三国魏.如淳.注:「王者欲知闾巷风俗,故立稗官使称说之。」
| 唐.颜师古.注:「稗官,小官。」

【规范】
名 <文> 古代专给帝王讲述街谈巷议、风土人情的小官。后也作为小说或小说家的代称。

【现代汉语大词典】
小官。小说家出于稗官, 后因称野史小说为稗官。
| 茅盾《你往哪里跑》:英雄狐鼠诸般相, 付与稗官一卷收。
---------------------------

Editor: I'm removing "talk of the town".

"talk of the town" means "a person or thing that many people in a town, city, etc., are talking about in an interested or excited way"
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/the%20talk%20of%20the%20town#:~:text=Definition%20of%20the%20talk%20of%20the%20town,the%20talk%20of%20the%20town.

It doesn't mean "the things that people in town are saying" (which is what GF's 街谈巷议 means).
Diff:
# 稗官 稗官 [bai4 guan1] /petty official charged with reporting the talk of town back to the ruler (old)/fiction writer/novelist/
#
- 稗官 稗官 [bai4 guan1] /petty official charged with reporting the talk of town back to the ruler (old)/novel in the vernacular/fiction writer/novelist/
+ 稗官 稗官 [bai4 guan1] /petty official charged with reporting back to the ruler on what people in a locality are talking about (old)/novel in the vernacular/fiction writer/novelist/

Change log entry 69838
Processed by: richwarm (2020-06-23 08:02:54 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65322 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* Following GF over ABC where the definitions differ.

【Wenlin】
n[oun].
①〈trad.〉 official charged with checking on public opinion
② storyteller

【LAC】
稗官:古代专为帝王讲述街谈巷语、故事等的小官
[in the definition for 稗官野史]

【MoE】
本指小官,后世沿称小说家为「稗官」。
| 《汉书.卷三○.艺文志》:「小说家者流,盖出于稗官。」
| 三国魏.如淳.注:「王者欲知闾巷风俗,故立稗官使称说之。」
| 唐.颜师古.注:「稗官,小官。」

【规范】
名 <文> 古代专给帝王讲述街谈巷议、风土人情的小官。后也作为小说或小说家的代称。

【现代汉语大词典】
小官。小说家出于稗官, 后因称野史小说为稗官。
| 茅盾《你往哪里跑》:英雄狐鼠诸般相, 付与稗官一卷收。
-----------------------------

Editor: Well, GF does say 后也作为小说[...]的代称。
And Grand Ricci says "Oeuvres Romanesques en langue vulgaire (小說)", which Google translates as "novels in the vernacular."
Diff:
# 稗官 稗官 [bai4 guan1] /petty official charged with reporting the talk of town back to the ruler (old)/fiction writer/novelist/
+ 稗官 稗官 [bai4 guan1] /petty official charged with reporting the talk of town back to the ruler (old)/novel in the vernacular/fiction writer/novelist/

Change log entry 69823
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-06-22 14:09:52 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 65375 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
n. 〈trad.〉
① disciple
② hanger-on/advisor of an aristocrat

【Pleco】
NOUN DATED
1 pupil; disciple; follower
2 hanger-on of an aristocrat; follower

【LAC】
1. 生徒;弟子。
2. 〈书〉食客,寄食在贵族豪门家并为之效劳的门客。
| 孟尝君~数千。

【MoE】
1. 弟子。
| 《礼记.檀弓上》:「夫子闻之曰:『谁与哭者?』门人曰:『鲤也。』」
| 《文选.曹丕.与吴质书》:「痛知音之难遇,伤门人之莫逮。」
2. 守门人。
| 《公羊传.襄公二十九年》:「祭阍者何?门人也。」
3. 门下客。
| 《战国策.齐策二》:「见孟尝君门人公孙戍曰:『臣郢之登徒也,直送象床,象床之直干舍。』」

【规范】
1 名 门生①[名 旧时指跟从老师或前辈学习的人; 弟子]。
2 名 门客①[名 门下客; 食客。即寄食在贵族豪门家里并为他们效劳的人。如毛遂是战国时赵国公子平原君赵胜的门客。]。


在朱熹门人中,陈淳被认为是多有发明和创见的一位。
Among Zhu Xi's disciples, Chen Chun is considered to be one who had more inventions and original idea.

在《明儒学案》中,黄宗羲认为周海门是罗近溪的门人而将其列入泰州学派。
In the book of Confucians in the Ming Dynasty written by Huang Zongxi, Zhou Haimen was listed in the school of Taizhou as the disciple of Lou Jinxi.

子曰:「参乎吾道一以贯之。」曾子曰:「唯。」子出。门人问曰:「何谓也」曾子曰:「夫子之道,忠恕而已矣。」
Confucius said: "Shan, my Tao is penetrated by a single thread."Tseng Tzu said, "Yes."When the Master left, some disciples asked what he meant. Tseng Tzu said, "Our master's Tao is to be sincere and fair, and that's it."


至于其余,却都非浅学所能穿凿,只希望有“历史癖与考据癖”的胡适之先生的门人们,将来或者能够寻出许多新端绪来,但是我这《阿Q正传》到那时却又怕早经消灭了。
> As to the rest, well, that's beyond the scope of a man of shallow scholarship like myself. I can only hope that the disciples of Mr. Hu Shi, who describes himself as having a "weakness for historical research coupled with an addiction to textual criticism," will be able to ferret out new clues at some time in the future. But by that time I'm afraid my "Ah Q—The Real Story" will have long since passed out of existence. (Lyell)
> As for the other problems, it is not for such unlearned people as myself to solve them, and I can only hope that disciples of Dr. Hu Shi, who has such “a passion for history and research,” may be able in future to throw new light on them. I am afraid, however, that by that time my “True Story of Ah Q” will have long since passed into oblivion. (Yangs)
> What remains to be known lies beyond the superficial capabilities of amateurs to unravel; and I can only hope that in future the disciples of a dedicated erudite such as Mr Hu Shi will hunt out new clues, in their relentless quest to further human knowledge, thoroughly obliterating what little achievement my Real Story of Ah-Q may constitute. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》
Diff:
+ 門人 门人 [men2 ren2] /disciple/follower/hanger-on (on an aristocrat's home)/

Change log entry 69816
Processed by: richwarm (2020-06-22 01:31:42 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64214 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Pleco】
VERB
1 SPORTS
replay a chess game (by restoring pieces and moves in order to appraise the tactics of the players)
| 他通过复盘给我讲解下棋策略。
| He explains the tactics of chess to me by replaying the original situations of the chessboard.
2 FINANCE
(of stockmarket) resume business

【LAC】
1. 棋类术语。对局结束后,还原棋局,重新演练,以检视对局中的优劣得失。也作「复局」。
| ~有助提高棋艺。
| 2. 指股票重新挂牌,恢复盘中交易。

【规范词典】
动 指下棋结束后, 按原先的下法重摆棋子, 以研究对局过程中的得失。


他通过复盘给我讲解下棋策略.
He explains the tactics of chess to me by replaying the original situations of the chessboard.

擔任佛乘盃比賽裁判長的丁逸仙表示,作為棋手,光憑天分是不夠的,需要更進一步做專業的探討,「貴為棋王,吳貴臨每天必作功課,每下完一盤棋,立刻復盤,每天專研前人棋 譜,針對對手棋路模擬作戰,保持身心最佳狀態,」丁逸仙說,職業選手需要無後顧之憂的生活條件。
According to Ding Yat-sen, who serves as the head referee at the Forshang Cup competitions, a player cannot rely on talent alone. One must work hard to deepen one's mastery of the game. Says Ding, "Even though Wu Kui-lin is already the champion, he never goes a day without studying the game, and as soon as he finishes a game he immediately begins to examine and analyze it. Every day he studies records of games played in the past, thinking about how he would play against different opponents. He always works to keep himself in top condition, both mentally and physically." A professional player must be independently wealthy to maintain this kind of training regimen.
《飛象跨五洲──佛乘盃世界棋王賽》https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=a23970bb-e114-4de3-a388-36ad5dc2f35b&CatId=1


它的股票交易在周四上午收盘,但是该公司已经准备在格林威治时间0630复盘。
Trading in its shares was suspended on Thursday morning, but the firm has applied to have them resume from 0630 GMT.

华尔街市场上周下跌,周二复盘交易。由于周一总统日,所有金融市场休市。
Wall Street retreated last week and resumed the selloff Tuesday. All financial markets were closed Monday for Presidents Day.
---------------------------------------

Editor: 比賽一結束,不論輸、贏,立刻和和氣氣復盤,檢討剛才的棋著。
Diff:
# 復盤 复盘 [fu4 pan2] /(Chinese chess) to place the pieces back on the original places and replay the game in order to analyze it/(stock market) to resume trading/
+ 復盤 复盘 [fu4 pan2] /(after completing a game of chess) to replay the game, analyzing the players' moves/(stock market) to resume trading/

Change log entry 69814
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-06-21 10:01:36 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64871 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
n. first year (of a reign/etc.)

【Pleco】
NOUN
1 first year (of an era or of the reign of an emperor)
2 first year (of tremendous changes in the system of government or governmental organization)

【LAC】
1. 帝王即位或帝王改号后的第一年。
| 鲁隐公~
| 天宝~。
2. 纪年的第一年。
| 西元~。
3. 初创的第一年。
| 足球联赛~
| 2010年被视为电子书~。

【MoE】
1. 我国旧日以人君即位的第一年、或改元的第一年为元年。
| 《公羊传.隐公元》:「元年者何?君之始年也。」
2. 以建国的第一年为元年。如:「民国元年」。
3. 因纪念教祖而定。如基督教以耶稣降生的那一年为元年,佛教以佛去世的那一年为元年,回教以穆罕默德出奔的那一年为元年。

【规范】
1 名 帝王即位的第一年或帝王改号后的第一年
| 清康熙元年。
2 名 纪年的第一年
| 公元元年
| 民国元年。

比如民国元年的《中华民国临时约法》,在那个时期是一个比较好的东西;
Thus the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China in 1912 was a fairly good one for its time.

今年是中国-东盟自贸区全面建成的“元年”。
This year is the first year of complete establishment of China-ASEAN free trade area.

但是现在,如果有人问2008年是否将被视为后美国世纪的元年,这似乎并不显得有多么地荒唐可笑。
Right now, it doesn’t seem so ridiculous to ask whether 2008 will come to be seen as the first year of a distinctly non-American century.

第一批丝绸就于公元元年出现在罗马。中国以丝绸从其他国家换得了酒、料、毛和其他物品。
The first silk appeared in Rome in AD1. In return for silk, China received wine, spices, wool and other goods.

為因應人口老化與少子化等問題,行政院將2019年訂為「地方創生元年」,希望以整合社區營造、文創與結合在地產業等不同面向的發展策略,重振地方經濟。
In response to such issues as an aging population and low birthrates, the Executive Yuan has declared 2019 “year one” of its regional revitalization policy, hoping to recharge local economies through development strategies that integrate community develop­ment, local industries and the cultural and creative industries.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=edd5b5d4-eb13-49ee-afec-e3f2000ba099&CatId=6

「職棒元年」有看頭!
Professional Baseball's Debut Year--A Year to Remember!
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=2932ac2a-fbff-4a22-b4b9-a3a70ce929f1&CatId=1

王品旗下品牌舒果於今年5月正式進軍新加坡。在此同時,王品董事長戴勝益宣示,今年將是王品的國際元年。繼新加坡後,下一步王品將瞄準美國,加快海外布局的腳步。
The Singapore branch of Su­food opened its doors in May, a moment which Wow­prime chairman Steve Day announced as the start of a new era in the group’s international efforts. After Singapore, the group now have their sights set on the US, and plan to speed up their moves into the global market.
https://www.taiwan-panorama.com/Articles/Details?Guid=da100c77-ae19-480c-bbd7-90eba95b1896&CatId=1
Diff:
- 元年 元年 [yuan2 nian2] /first year of an emperor's reign/
+ 元年 元年 [yuan2 nian2] /first year of an emperor's reign/first year of an era/first year of a significant time period/

Change log entry 69813
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2020-06-21 10:00:05 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 62628 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
* I'm adding ‘to govern and educate’, which is in both Wenlin and MoE with two quotations.
* MoE also has ‘事理的变化’ and ‘县名。’. I haven't seen these two definitions anywhere else so I'm not adding them here.

【Wenlin】
n. physics and chemistry ◆v. govern and educate

【Pleco】
NOUN
ABBREVIATION
physics and chemistry
VARIANTS
物理和化学

【MoE】
1. 治理和教化。
| 《晋书.卷三○.刑法志》:「夫礼以训世,而法以整俗,理化之本,事实由之。」
| 唐.白居易〈为宰相让官表〉:「枢衡要地,初不得人,则理化劳心,终无成日。」
2. 事理的变化。
| 《后汉书.卷三二.樊宏传.论曰》:「分地以用天道,实廪以崇礼节,取诸理化,则亦可以施于政也。」
| 《文选.殷仲文.南州桓公九井作诗》:「四运虽鳞次,理化各有准。」
3. 物理学和化学。如:「理化馆」、「理化教学」。
4. 县名。位于西康省康定县西,沙鲁里山东南,当川藏交通要道。旧为里化厅。现中共已改名理塘县,划归四川省。

【LAC】
物理与化学的合称。
| ~实验。
Diff:
- 理化 理化 [li3 hua4] /physical and chemical/
+ 理化 理化 [li3 hua4] /physics and chemistry/to govern and educate/

Change log entry 69810
Processed by: richwarm (2020-06-20 02:36:18 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64853 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
【Wenlin】
n. 〈derog.〉 a Chinese aping foreigners (from Lu Xun's Story of Ah Q)

【Pleco】
fake foreigner

【LAC】
对崇洋媚外、挟洋以自重的人的蔑称。

【MoE】
对本国文化失去信心,对西洋文化也一知半解,却崇洋媚外,挟洋以自重的人。

【规范】
名 对模仿洋人装腔作势的本国人的蔑称。


一路走去,一路便是笑骂的声音,有的还跟在后面骂:‘这冒失鬼!’ ‘假洋鬼子!’
When I walked out on the street, however, I was still cursed and ridiculed.#2 Some people would even follow along behind and call me 'Savage' or 'Fake Foreign Devil'! (Lyell)
“Wherever I went I heard jeers and abuse. Some people even tagged after me cursing, Lunatic! Fake foreign devil! (Yangs)
But I got insults wherever I went - idiot, fake foreign devil, etcetera, etcetera.(Lovell)
鲁迅《头发的故事》

阿Q疑心他是和尚,但看见下面站着一排兵,两旁又站着十几个长衫人物,也有满头剃得精光像这老头子的,也有将一尺来长的头发披在背后像那假洋鬼子的,都是一脸横肉,怒目而视的看他;他便知道这人一定有些来历,膝关节立刻自然而然的宽松,便跪了下去了。
Ah Q thought he must be some kind of monk at first, but then he noticed a line of soldiers standing below the old fellow and many long-gowned gentry types on either side of him as well. Some of these long gowns had their heads shaved clean just like the old geezer, but one had hair that was a good foot and a half long and fanned out all over his shoulders just like the Fake Foreign Devil's. Every mother's son of them looked mean and ugly. What was more, they nailed Ah Q with dirty looks. At this juncture, it occurred to Ah Q that there must be something more to the bald old geezer than met the eye. Ah Q's knees instantly loosened of their own accord and he sank to a kneeling position. (Lyell)
Ah Q took him for a monk at first, but when he saw soldiers standing guard and a dozen men in long coats on both sides, some with their heads clean-shaven like this old man and some with a foot or so of hair hanging over their shoulders like the Bogus Foreign Devil, all glaring furiously at him with grim faces, he knew that this man must be someone important. At once his knee-joints relaxed of their own accord, and he sank to his knees. (Yangs)
Ah-Q wondered first if he was a monk, until he spotted rows of soldiers, together with some dozen important-looking individuals in long gowns, lined up on either side of the room -their heads either clean-shaven like the old man, or their hair allowed to hang a generous foot down their backs like the Fake Foreign Devil - all glaring savagely at him. At this point, he realized this was an encounter with Authority; his joints automatically weakened and reduced him to his knees. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》

据我所知,自从创世之初,知识分子就被人看不起。直到他们造出了原子弹,使全世界惶惶不可终日,这种情形才有所改变。李卫公年轻时被人说成大烟鬼、屁精、假洋鬼子 ,也没有卑鄙到想造原子弹来威胁人类。
王小波《青铜时代》

他去美国很吃了几年牛奶面包。他对于牛奶面包当然就有深刻的研究,听说他因此写了一篇洋洋洒洒、凡两三万言的科学论文,题目是《牛奶放糖一定甜的机理初探》,他还因此得了一个硕士。他回国后,穿上假洋鬼子 的衣服,手里提一根打狗棍捧着大名片,名片上一面用中文印着美国什么大学的硕士头衔,一面印着一大片洋码子。
马识途《夜谭十记》

他觉得这位“首长”说起话来中不中、西不西,还以假洋鬼子 的洋腔洋调自得。
张洁《无字》
Diff:
# 假洋鬼子 假洋鬼子 [jia3 yang2 gui3 zi5] /fake foreign devil, a term of abuse for a Chinese person seen as too westernized/
+ 假洋鬼子 假洋鬼子 [jia3 yang2 gui3 zi5] /(derog.) wannabe foreigner, a Chinese person who apes the ways of foreigners/

Change log entry 69801
Processed by: richwarm (2020-06-17 08:09:40 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 64931 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
It seems originally 烟管 referred specifically to the traditional Chinese long bamboo pipe but modern translation examples show it is used to refer to any kind of smoking pipe.

【Wenlin】
n. tobacco pipe

【Pleco】
NOUN
flue (header); smoke pipe (or tube)

【现代汉语大词典】
竹管制的吸旱烟用具。
|许地山《蜜蜂和农人》: 蜂虽然这样唱, 那底下坐着三四个农夫, 却各人担着烟管在那里闲谈。

他这时确也有些忐忑了,慌张的将烟管插在裤带上,就想去舂米。
Heart pounding, he hastily thrust his pipe into his belt and made ready to go back to his hulling (Lyell)
In fact, by this time he was in rather a nervous state himself. In a flurry, he stuck his pipe into his belt and decided to go back to grind rice. (Yangs)
Having distractedly tucked his pipe into his belt, he decided to return to his rice-husking. (Lovell)
鲁迅《阿Q正传》

母亲叫闰土坐,他迟疑了一回,终于就了坐,将长烟管靠在桌旁,递过纸包来,说:“冬天没有什么东西了。
Mother asked Runtu to have a seat. He hesitated for a bit but finally sat down and leaned his long pipe against the table. - He handed the paper package across to me and said, "We don't have much of anything in the winter, (Lyell)
Mother asked Runtu to sit down, and after a little hesitation he did so; then leaning his long pipe against the table he handed over the paper package, saying: “In winter there is nothing worth bringing; (Yangs)
Mother invited Runtu to sit down, which, after some hesitation, he finally did, resting his pipe against the side of a table. 'Just a handful of peas we dried at home, I'm afraid, sir,' he apologized, presenting his paper bag. (Lovell)
鲁迅《故乡》

奥托冯俾斯麦,普鲁士的一位首相,用它来夯实烟管里的烟草。
Otto von Bismarck , a Prussian chancellor , used his to tamp down the tobacco in his pipe .

他祖母一边用烟管吸着烟,一边教他唱歌。
His grandmother taught him to sing while she smoked tobacco in a pipe.

著着很厚的青布单衣或夹袄的都市闲人,咬着烟管,在雨后的斜桥影里,上桥头树底下去一立。
Some idle townsfolk, wearing lined or unlined clothing made of thick cloth, will come out pipe in mouth and, loitering under a tree by the end of a bridge.

二手烟不仅来自吸烟者呼出的烟气(我们称之为主流烟气),而且来自从烟尾、雪茄或者烟管中飘散出的烟气(我们称之为测流烟)。
Secondhand smoke comes from both the smoke that smokers exhale (called mainstream smoke) and the smoke floating from the end of the cigarette, cigar, or pipe (called sidestream smoke).

Turkish tobacco pipe with a long stem and a red clay bowl.
土耳其长烟管一种有长杆和红色的黏土做的烟斗的土耳其的烟管
Diff:
+ 煙管 烟管 [yan1 guan3] /smoking pipe/

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