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Change log entry 73527
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-22 07:32:34 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69260 - submitted by 'goldyn_chyld' >>
not sure if "dui" should be capitalized as well or not
- 飛虎隊 飞虎队 [fei1 hu3 dui4] /Flying Tigers, US airmen in China during World War Two/Hong Kong nickname for police special duties unit/
+ 飛虎隊 飞虎队 [Fei1 hu3 dui4] /Flying Tigers, US airmen in China during World War Two/Hong Kong nickname for police special duties unit/

Change log entry 73526
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-22 07:15:45 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69256 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
+ 列弗 列弗 [lie4 fu2] /lev (Bulgarian unit of currency)/

Change log entry 73525
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-22 07:13:03 GMT)
- 日元 日元 [Ri4 yuan2] /Japanese yen (unit of currency)/also written 日圓|日圆/
+ 日元 日元 [Ri4 yuan2] /Japanese yen (unit of currency)/also written 日圓|日圆[Ri4 yuan2]/

Change log entry 73524
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-22 06:30:11 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69250 - submitted by 'goldyn_chyld' >>
according to Wp, 布林 is Tw... but i don't know for sure


1) More apt to say "algebra" rather than "logic" in the entry for 乔治·布尔.
a) Britannica ~ "[Boole's] algebra of logic, now called Boolean algebra, is basic to the design of digital computer circuits."
b) Wp ~ 以發明布林代數的數學家喬治·布爾為名。

2) I think adding (Tw) is probably justified.
"布尔代数" - 135k
"布林代数" - 10k
So, on the mainland, "Boolean algebra" is usually 布尔代数, not 布林代数.

Meanwhile, there are more results for 布林代數 (presumably, mostly from Taiwan) than there are for 布林代数.
"布林代數" - 24k
# 布爾 布尔 [Bu4 er3] /Boolean (math.)/
# = 布林 布林 [Bu4 lin2] /Boolean (math.)/
- 喬治·布爾 乔治·布尔 [Qiao2 zhi4 · Bu4 er3] /George Boole (1815-1864), English mathematician, philosopher and logician, author of The Laws of Thought and the inventor of Boolean logic/
+ 喬治·布爾 乔治·布尔 [Qiao2 zhi4 · Bu4 er3] /George Boole (1815-1864), English mathematician, philosopher and logician, author of The Laws of Thought and inventor of Boolean algebra/
+ 布爾 布尔 [Bu4 er3] /Boole (surname)/(math.) Boolean/
- 布林 布林 [Bu4 lin2] /Boolean (math.)/
+ 布林 布林 [Bu4 lin2] /Boolean (math.) (Tw)/

Change log entry 73523
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-22 05:28:20 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69257 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
"coin.baidu.com" doesn't seem to exist
- 百度幣 百度币 [Bai3 du4 bi4] /virtual currency created by Baidu for use on its websites (coin.baidu.com)/
+ 百度幣 百度币 [Bai3 du4 bi4] /virtual currency created by Baidu/

Change log entry 73522
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-22 05:27:58 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69258 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
- url doesn't work
- the paper is now defunct
- apparently not significant enough to warrant an article in English Wp
- 北京晨報 北京晨报 [Bei3 jing1 Chen2 bao4] /Beijing Morning Post, www.morningpost.com.cn/
+ 北京晨報 北京晨报 [Bei3 jing1 Chen2 bao4] /Beijing Morning Post, newspaper published 1998-2018/

Change log entry 73521
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-22 05:27:21 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69259 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
In English it's Sogou, not Sougou.

I'd say "searching dog" is gratuitous.
- 搜狗 搜狗 [Sou1 gou3] /Sougou (searching dog) search engine, www.sogou.com/
+ 搜狗 搜狗 [Sou1 gou3] /Sogou, Chinese tech company known for its search engine, www.sogou.com/

Change log entry 73520
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-22 01:02:07 GMT)
Comment: Portuguese
- 埃斯庫多 埃斯库多 [ai1 si1 ku4 duo1] /escudo (Spanish and Portugese: shield), former currency of Portugal and other countries/
+ 埃斯庫多 埃斯库多 [ai1 si1 ku4 duo1] /escudo (Spanish and Portuguese: shield), former currency of Portugal and other countries/

Change log entry 73519
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-22 00:44:54 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69253 - submitted by 'garbaz' >>
City name (characters as used in Taiwan).
# 弗萊堡 弗莱堡 [Fu2 lai2 bao3] /(Tw) Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany/PRC equivalent: 弗賴堡|弗赖堡[Fu2 lai4 bao3]/

Change log entry 73518
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-22 00:44:31 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69252 - submitted by 'garbaz' >>
City name (characters as used in PRC).

Editor: In principle, you can scrape *all* of the many thousands of names in Chinese Wikipedia (people, places, book titles etc) and their English equivalents, to derive a large C-E name dictionary. Pleco, for one, has stated that they are going to do that after their version 4 is released. I don't think it makes much sense for us to continue manually adding a tiny fraction of those names one by one (except for the most important and relevant proper names, such as Chinese province names.)
# 弗賴堡 弗赖堡 [Fu2 lai4 bao3] /(PRC) Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany/Taiwan equivalent: 弗萊堡|弗莱堡[Fu2 lai2 bao3]/

Change log entry 73517
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-22 00:15:34 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69254 - submitted by 'garbaz' >>
弗兰克, 弗赖堡, etc

Editor: "used in names for people and places" doesn't cover cases like 列弗 (lev, Bulgarian unit of currency) and 弗拉门戈 (flamenco).
- 弗 弗 [fu2] /not/
# + 弗 弗 [fu2] /not/used in names for people and places/
+ 弗 弗 [fu2] /not (literary)/used in transliteration/

Change log entry 73516
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-20 02:27:32 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69242 - submitted by 'aaronwong' >>
- 因公殉職 因公殉职 [yin1 gong1 xun4 zhi2] /to die as in the line of duty (idiom)/
# + 因公殉職 因公殉职 [yin1 gong1 xun4 zhi2] /to die as in the line of duty (idiom)/to be killed on the job/
+ 因公殉職 因公殉职 [yin1 gong1 xun4 zhi2] /to die in the course of performing one's duty (idiom)/

Change log entry 73515
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-19 16:07:20 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69240 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
Caps and spelling.

1) Qing1 tai4 zong1 --> Qing1 Tai4 zong1

Wp says ... Qing dynasty Taizong’s veritable records《清太宗實錄》 ... 清太宗實錄 "Qing Taizong shilu" Part 20

2) Hung Taiji --> Hong Taiji

See the same Wp article.
"Hong Taiji (28 November 1592 – 21 September 1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and sometimes referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was the second khan of the Later Jin (reigned from 1626 to 1636) and the founding emperor of the Qing dynasty (reigned from 1636 to 1643)."

Editor: Tai4
- 皇太極 皇太极 [Huang2 Tai4 ji2] /Hong Taiji (1592-1643), eighth son of Nurhaci 努爾哈赤|努尔哈赤[Nu3 er3 ha1 chi4], reigned 1626-1636 as Second Khan of Later Jin dynasty 後金|后金[Hou4 Jin1], then founded the Qing dynasty 大清[Da4 Qing1] and reigned 1636-1643 as Emperor/posthumous name 清太宗[Qing1 tai4 zong1]/
# + 皇太極 皇太极 [Huang2 Tai4 ji2] /Hong Taiji (1592-1643), eighth son of Nurhaci 努爾哈赤|努尔哈赤[Nu3 er3 ha1 chi4], reigned 1626-1636 as Second Khan of Later Jin dynasty 後金|后金[Hou4 Jin1], then founded the Qing dynasty 大清[Da4 Qing1] and reigned 1636-1643 as Emperor/posthumous name 清太宗[Qing1 tai4 zong1]/
+ 皇太極 皇太极 [Huang2 Tai4 ji2] /Hong Taiji (1592-1643), eighth son of Nurhaci 努爾哈赤|努尔哈赤[Nu3 er3 ha1 chi4], reigned 1626-1636 as Second Khan of Later Jin dynasty 後金|后金[Hou4 Jin1], then founded the Qing dynasty 大清[Da4 Qing1] and reigned 1636-1643 as Emperor/posthumous name 清太宗[Qing1 Tai4 zong1]/
- 皇太極清太宗 皇太极清太宗 [Huang2 tai4 ji2 Qing1 tai4 zong1] /Hung Taiji (1592-1643), eighth son of Nurhaci 努爾哈赤|努尔哈赤[Nu3 er3 ha1 chi4], reigned 1626-1636 as Second Khan of Later Jin dynasty 後金|后金[Hou4 Jin1], then founded the Qing dynasty 大清[Da4 Qing1] and reigned 1636-1643 as Emperor/
+ 皇太極清太宗 皇太极清太宗 [Huang2 tai4 ji2 Qing1 Tai4 zong1] /Hong Taiji (1592-1643), eighth son of Nurhaci 努爾哈赤|努尔哈赤[Nu3 er3 ha1 chi4], reigned 1626-1636 as Second Khan of Later Jin dynasty 後金|后金[Hou4 Jin1], then founded the Qing dynasty 大清[Da4 Qing1] and reigned 1636-1643 as Emperor/
- 清太宗 清太宗 [Qing1 tai4 zong1] /posthumous title of Hung Taiji 皇太極|皇太极[Huang2 Tai4 ji2] (1592-1643), eighth son of Nurhaci 努爾哈赤|努尔哈赤[Nu3 er3 ha1 chi4], reigned 1626-1636 as Second Khan of Later Jin dynasty 後金|后金[Hou4 Jin1], then founded the Qing dynasty 大清[Da4 Qing1] and reigned 1636-1643 as Emperor/
...[click view changes to see the full diff]...

Change log entry 73514
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-19 04:51:03 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69239 - submitted by 'aaronwong' >>
change Hunag2 to Huang2

Editor: thanks
- 清太宗 清太宗 [Qing1 tai4 zong1] /posthumous title of Hung Taiji 皇太極|皇太极[Hunag2 Tai4 ji2] (1592-1643), eighth son of Nurhaci 努爾哈赤|努尔哈赤[Nu3 er3 ha1 chi4], reigned 1626-1636 as Second Khan of Later Jin dynasty 後金|后金[Hou4 Jin1], then founded the Qing dynasty 大清[Da4 Qing1] and reigned 1636-1643 as Emperor/
+ 清太宗 清太宗 [Qing1 tai4 zong1] /posthumous title of Hung Taiji 皇太極|皇太极[Huang2 Tai4 ji2] (1592-1643), eighth son of Nurhaci 努爾哈赤|努尔哈赤[Nu3 er3 ha1 chi4], reigned 1626-1636 as Second Khan of Later Jin dynasty 後金|后金[Hou4 Jin1], then founded the Qing dynasty 大清[Da4 Qing1] and reigned 1636-1643 as Emperor/

Change log entry 73513
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-17 08:19:08 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69229 >>

Editor: It doesn't mean "barely" there.
# - 差點 差点 [cha4 dian3] /almost/nearly/
# + 差點 差点 [cha4 dian3] /almost/nearly/barely/

Change log entry 73512
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-16 03:33:11 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69225 - submitted by 'ghast' >>
the other three are capitalized (Xīyuè, Nányuè, Běiyuè)

Editor: Actually, the other *four* of the five sacred mountains (including 中嶽) are capitalized.
- 東嶽 东岳 [dong1 yue4] /Mt Tai 泰山 in Shandong, one of the Five Sacred Mountains 五嶽|五岳[Wu3 yue4]/
+ 東嶽 东岳 [Dong1 yue4] /Mt Tai 泰山 in Shandong, one of the Five Sacred Mountains 五嶽|五岳[Wu3 yue4]/

Change log entry 73511
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-15 05:19:12 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69224 - submitted by 'chromegames923' >>
Fix list that got separated into two definitions
- 拌麵 拌面 [ban4 mian4] /noodles served with soy sauce/sesame butter etc/
+ 拌麵 拌面 [ban4 mian4] /noodles served with soy sauce, sesame butter etc/

Change log entry 73510
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-14 10:22:13 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69223 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
updating the entry
- 塔利班 塔利班 [Ta3 li4 ban1] /Taliban (Farsi: student), Afghan guerrilla faction/
+ 塔利班 塔利班 [Ta3 li4 ban1] /the Taliban, Islamist organization that emerged in the mid-1990s in Afghanistan/

Change log entry 73509
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-14 08:32:55 GMT)
Comment: c. 1960-2013

Wp says "1960"
EB says "born c. 1950–62?"
- 穆罕默德·歐瑪 穆罕默德·欧玛 [Mu4 han3 mo4 de2 · Ou1 ma3] /Mullah Mohammad Omar (1959-), Taliban leader, Afghan head of state 1996-2001/
+ 穆罕默德·歐瑪 穆罕默德·欧玛 [Mu4 han3 mo4 de2 · Ou1 ma3] /Mullah Mohammad Omar (c. 1960-2013), Taliban leader, Afghan head of state 1996-2001/

Change log entry 73508
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-14 06:11:30 GMT)
Comment: +to
- 懷念 怀念 [huai2 nian4] /to cherish the memory of/to think of/reminisce/
+ 懷念 怀念 [huai2 nian4] /to cherish the memory of/to think of/to reminisce/

Change log entry 73507
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-11 18:09:41 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69220 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
知识共享(英語:Creative Commons)是一個非營利組織,該組織提供同名的一系列著作的授權方式,即知識共享許可協議。
Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization and international network devoted to educational access and expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.[3] The organization has released several copyright licenses, known as Creative Commons licenses, free of charge to the public.

知识共享(Creative Commons),简称CC,中国大陆正式名称为知识共享,台湾正式名称为创用CC。是一个非营利组织,也是一种创作的授权方式。


This service incorporates Geonames geographical data, which is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

A creative commons licence works alongside a copyright and allows authors and publishers more flexibility in terms of sharing the contents of their work with the world.

根据"知识共享"许可证发布的内容标记为此类。 可以根据指定的许可条件使用它们。
Contents published under the "Creative Commons" license are marked as such. They may be used according to the specified license conditions.

除非另有声明,本网站采用知识共享"署名 3.0 中国大陆"许可协议授权。
Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 China Mainland License.
+ 知識共享 知识共享 [Zhi1 shi5 Gong4 xiang3] /Creative Commons/

Change log entry 73506
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-10 08:46:38 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69210 - submitted by 'samsara' >>

Editor: One can extract a comprehensive set of proper name entries from zh- and en-Wikipedia data, and Pleco has stated that they are going to be doing exactly that once they have released version 4. I don't think we should spend time adding this sort of entry manually, one by one, except for certain names considered essential to a CE dictionary — like 秦始皇, say.

An individual editor (not me!) may have an interest in spending time on proper name entries, but their time might end up being wasted if/when that sort of Wikipedia-derived file is created.

For example, we could check the current submission, and process it as
堡壘之夜 堡垒之夜 [Bao3 lei3 zhi1 Ye4] /Fortnite (video game)/

But a Wikipedia-derived file would contain an entry derived from the following two linked articles
The entry would look like this:
堡壘之夜 {堡垒之夜} Fortnite: Fortnite is an online video game developed by Epic Games and released in 2017.

Why add hundreds or thousands of proper name entries manually if they can be extracted from Wikipedia using a script?

In addition, data extracted from Wikipedia can be updated easily by re-running the script, but it would be a big headache for us to manually update all the entries that fall out of date when
- a politician is promoted to a higher position, or
- a company ceases to exist, or
- a county is reclassified as a city district
# 堡壘之夜 堡垒之夜 [bao3 lei3 zhi1 ye4] /Fortnite (video game)/

Change log entry 73505
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-08 22:23:33 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69138 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
1. "noncoagulative" is a rather technical, and rarely used, word for it.
I propose
/half congealed/runny/

2. It seems that 溏 is most often used in 溏心.
(4 million+ G hits for 溏心)

Do you like eggs? Which one you prefer, hard boiled eggs, hot spring eggs or soft boiled eggs? And actually, hot spring eggs are not the same as soft boiled eggs! We sum up the tips on how to cook eggs.

Editor: Removing "runny" -- not sure that's a suitable word for it.
- 溏 溏 [tang2] /noncoagulative/pond/
# + 溏 溏 [tang2] /half congealed/runny/pond/
+ 溏心 溏心 [tang2 xin1] /soft yolk (of a cooked egg)/
+ 溏 溏 [tang2] /half congealed/pond/

Change log entry 73504
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-08 22:19:35 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69198 - submitted by 'sl89' >>


Collect and analyze sales data, and competitors information.

If the supply of what your competitors offer is not limited in some way the price of that offering will drop to your cost of capital.

Delivered a comprehensive brand strategy including competitor analysis, market positioning, brand slogan and Chinese name

Do shoppers notice your package on the shelf among competitors?

One of the most successful Chinese brands in India so far, Xiaomi has gone to great lengths to create products catering to customers there. Its new Mi 4i phone costs more than many rivals at about $200, but supports six Indian languages, with local engineers working to increase that number.

Editor: We created an entry for 競品 a couple of weeks before you submitted your proposal.
# 競品 竞品 [jing4 pin3] /(business) competitor/competing product/

Change log entry 73503
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-08 08:09:34 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69215 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
Context is needed to understand what is meant by "position" and "front".
Both words have various meanings that do not apply here.

阵地 does have figurative usage as well, but the main thing I want to do here is make the original meaning clearer.

He was sent to spy out enemy positions.

A machine gun opened up from a concealed position.

We shouldn't yield our position to the enemy.
- 陣地 阵地 [zhen4 di4] /position/front/
+ 陣地 阵地 [zhen4 di4] /(military) position/front/

Change log entry 73502
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-08 05:10:07 GMT)
Comment: Every --> every
Not necessarily a whole sentence -- can be part of a larger sentence.


It seems that when the subject of the professional and technical licensing examinations comes up, everyone has a horror story.
- 家家有本難念的經 家家有本难念的经 [jia1 jia1 you3 ben3 nan2 nian4 de5 jing1] /Every family goes through its problems. (idiom)/
+ 家家有本難念的經 家家有本难念的经 [jia1 jia1 you3 ben3 nan2 nian4 de5 jing1] /every family has its problems (idiom)/

Change log entry 73501
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-08 02:12:07 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69181 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
1. Is it slang? It's not even labeled as "coll." in most dicts.

2. I don't see it defined as anything like "idolater" in dicts. That definition makes it sound like theological term, as in ‘Some people would be horrified to think of themselves as idolaters, yet their behavior may manifest a lack of faith and trust in God.’

Also, it seems unlikely that there would be a slang word for "idolater".

3. Spelling: Most dicts prefer "idolater" to "idolator".

4. We could add 追星, which Wikt, for example, defines as
"(neologism) to adore a star; to idolise a celebrity; to worship someone famous"

(btw, no mention of "slang" there, and no mention of worship of religious idols either)

5. groupie ~ "A young woman who regularly follows a pop group or other celebrity, especially in the hope of having a sexual relationship with them."
I suspect that may not be a description that would apply to all or even most 追星族.
Most people in this photo are probably not groupies. (Nor would anyone describe them as "idolaters".)
But the Chinese caption is 追星族.

6. There is a Wp article on 追星族
- 追星族 追星族 [zhui1 xing1 zu2] /(slang) groupie/idolator/
# + 追星族 追星族 [zhui1 xing1 zu2] /????/
+ 追星 追星 [zhui1 xing1] /to idolize a celebrity/
+ 追星族 追星族 [zhui1 xing1 zu2] /enthusiastic fan/

Change log entry 73500
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-08 01:00:00 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69208 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
Maybe it also makes sense to define escape character 转义字符 and escape sequence 转义序列 (because "escape" in these two expressions doesn't mean't the same thing), but I feel that as long as 转义 is defined as a verb, these constructs should be easily understood.

A single quote in the message must be escaped with another single quote.

After you escape the operator, it matches like any other literal.

The only pitfall here is that you need to escape reserved characters properly (see Table 1).

In Listing 6, note that all the Unicode characters are escaped.

Escape sequences

To specify a literal single quote, escape it with a backslash (\).
As in single quoted strings, escaping any other character will result in the backslash being printed too.

\: Either escapes special characters (permitting you to match characters like '*', '?', and so forth), or signals a special sequence; special sequences are discussed below.
\: 转义特殊字符(允许你匹配 '*', '?', 或者此类其他),或者表示一个特殊序列;特殊序列之后进行讨论。

Editor: I'm mystified as to why you would say <<"escape" in these two expressions doesn't mean the same thing">>
I tried to contact you about that via this website and also by email, but haven't received a reply.

Anyway, I think it could be worthwhile having the extra two entries.

转义是当由于技术等原因、无法直接在代码中写出所要的字符时采用的,以多个字符的有序组合来表示原本需要的字符的手段,而转义序列(英语:escape sequence)指在转义时使用的有序字符组合。

在计算机科学与远程通信中,当转义字符(Escape Character)放在字符序列时,它将对它后续的几个字符进行替代并解释。

I note in passing that 跳脫 appears to be the term used in Taiwan for "(computing) to escape".
E.g. 在電腦科學與遠端通信中,當跳脫字元(Escape Character)放在字元序列時,它將對它後續的幾個字元進行替代並解釋。跳脫字元是元字元的一種特殊情況。
- 轉義 转义 [zhuan3 yi4] /transferred meaning/
+ 轉義 转义 [zhuan3 yi4] /(linguistics) transferred meaning/(computing) to escape/
+ 轉義序列 转义序列 [zhuan3 yi4 xu4 lie4] /(computing) escape sequence/
+ 轉義字符 转义字符 [zhuan3 yi4 zi4 fu2] /(computing) escape character/

Change log entry 73499
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-06 05:53:20 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69201 - submitted by 'malcolm_schonfield' >>
All the other dictionaries I have handy give the neutral tone for 苦 in 挖苦.

Editor: 12 years ago, when the entry was last revised, the editor wrote "I think it's a full tone most of the time."

Here are two dictionaries that say wākǔ.
(The latter source usually gives the mainland pronunciation whenever it's different from Taiwan pronunciation, but for 挖苦 it just says wākǔ.)
- 挖苦 挖苦 [wa1 ku3] /to speak sarcastically/to make cutting remarks/
# + 挖苦 挖苦 [wa1 ku5] /to speak sarcastically/to make cutting remarks/
+ 挖苦 挖苦 [wa1 ku3] /to speak sarcastically/to make cutting remarks/also pr. [wa1 ku5]/

Change log entry 73498
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-06 04:33:29 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69200 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
※ 分位数
In statistics and probability, quantiles are cut points dividing the range of a probability distribution into continuous intervals with equal probabilities, or dividing the observations in a sample in the same way. There is one fewer quantile than the number of groups created. Common quantiles have special names, such as quartiles (four groups), deciles (ten groups), and percentiles (100 groups).
分位数(英語:Quantile),亦称分位点,是指用分割点(cut point)将一个随机变量的概率分布范围分为几个具有相同概率的连续区间。分割点的数量比划分出的区间少1,例如3个分割点能分出4个区间。
常用的有中位数(即二分位数)、四分位数(quartile)、十分位数(decile )、百分位数等。


上表显示了 “STATE”列的分位数统计信息。
The table shows the quantile statistics for the column "STATE."

Through quantile regression and M-M decomposition, we find that revenue decision mechanism is a main reason to force income distribution curve towards the right.

这已经是一个较好的值,因为它可以保证优化器在使用分位数统计信息的情况下对确定过滤因子的估计误差最大只有 5%。
This is already a good value because it guarantees that the optimizer, by using the quantile statistics, only has an estimated maximum error of 5% for the determined filter factors.

In statistics, a percentile (or a centile) is a score below which a given percentage of scores in its frequency distribution falls (exclusive definition) or a score at or below which a given percentage falls (inclusive definition).


龄中位数为61岁(第25和第75百分位数,56及68岁),和80 %的患者都是男性。
The median age was 61 years (25th and 75th percentiles, 56 and 68 years), and 80% of patients were male.

而如果她的成绩是第30个百分位数, 就是低于70%的考生。
If she scored in the 30th percentile, 70% of test takers scored above her.

Between 33 and 76 of low-birth-weight pregnancies had MSAFP levels at the 75th percentile when measured before the 29th week.

※ 十分位数
In descriptive statistics, a decile is any of the nine values that divide the sorted data into ten equal parts, so that each part represents 1/10 of the sample or population.[

n. decile; ten-percentile

Structure of consumption expenditure of member of household by income decile and level of education of head of household (%)

In Mexico and the Philippines, 15 to 20 per cent of households in the fourth and seventh income deciles were pushed into a lower income decile owing to income loss.

These data should be read in conjunction with the following tables, presenting the resources and their use, including GNP, GDP, per capita GNP and GDP, private consumption expenditure over the years as well as GNP by deciles.

※ 四分位数
In statistics, a quartile is a type of quantile which divides the number of data points into four parts, or quarters, of more-or-less equal size.

n. quartile


The probability of clonal evolution was higher in patients in the first quartile (24.5 percent) than in quartiles 2 through 4 (8.4 percent).

He said that the Fund's investment performance was excellent; and it was currently ranked within the first quartile of pension funds.

For each biomarker, each of the three upper quartiles was compared to the lowest quartile.
+ 分位數 分位数 [fen1 wei4 shu4] /quantile (statistics)/
+ 百分位數 百分位数 [bai3 fen1 wei4 shu4] /percentile (statistics)/
+ 十分位數 十分位数 [shi2 fen1 wei4 shu4] /decile (statistics)/
+ 四分位數 四分位数 [si4 fen1 wei4 shu4] /quartile (statistics)/

Change log entry 73497
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-05 07:49:04 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69211 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
Dictionary definitions and usage suggest that 血泊 refers to a pool of blood (formed by the flow of blood from wounds), whereas a bloodbath is an *event*.

bloodbath: "an event or situation in which many people are killed in an extremely violent way" [Oxford]

My comment: A 'pool of blood' can lie on the ground, but a 'bloodbath' cannot.

In J examples, it's pool of blood, not bloodbath.
e.g. "Fatally shot, he lay in a pool of blood."

She said that after coming home that night, she discovered her husband had fallen in a pool of blood,and he was already dead. Later, we took her to the police station to make a statement. Our colleagues in the Crime Scene Investigation department stayed at the scene of the crime to investigate and take samples.

Under a hail of bullets from a helicopter-borne hunter's gun, a wolf frantically flees, but does not forget to look back for a glimpse at its dying mate, lying in a pool of blood.

running over she saw three children lying in a pool of blood, two of whom died on the spot and one of whom suffered life-threatening injuries.

The writer in a pool of blood

He died after coughing blood at his desk, staining his clothes red, which earned him the distinctive epithet of “the writer lying in a pool of blood.”

Web ~
- 血泊 血泊 [xue4 po1] /bloodbath/pool of blood/
+ 血泊 血泊 [xue4 po1] /pool of blood/

Change log entry 73496
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-05 04:14:10 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69194 - submitted by 'missweizhang' >>

Editor: Your reference says 永在的神耶和華,創造地極的主, and one English translation of Isaiah 40:28 says "The Lord is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth."

So I suppose you assumed that 地極 means "the ends of the earth".

The problem is that other English translations say things like
- "The Lord is the everlasting God; he created all the world."
- "The Lord is the eternal God, Creator of the earth."

My guess is that these latter two translations are close to the original meaning of the Bible, and that "the ends of the earth" is just a poetic way of expressing the same idea. The problem is, "the ends of the earth" usually means "the most remote places in the world", as in "He would go to the ends of the earth to please her." That's not quite the sense intended by the Bible.

In addition, I'm not sure that 地极 can be used to mean either of the following in any context other than the Bible.
- the most remote places in the world
- the whole world

You certainly haven't provided any evidence that it can.
# 地極 地极 [di4 ji2] /the ends of the earth/

Change log entry 73495
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-05 01:45:44 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 68971 - submitted by 'polaris' >>
From 《辞源》

2、Luó bù pō 同 罗布淖尔
From 《姚小平汉英词典》

3、泊 pō
From 《现代汉语词典·第7版》
- 羅布泊 罗布泊 [Luo2 bu4 bo2] /Lop Nor, salt lake and nuclear testing site in Xinjiang/
# + 羅布泊 罗布泊 [Luo2 bu4 po1] /Lop Nor, salt lake and nuclear testing site in Xinjiang/Taiwan pr. [Luo2 bu4 bo2]/
+ 羅布泊 罗布泊 [Luo2 bu4 po1] /Lop Nor, former salt lake in Xinjiang, now a salt-encrusted lake bed/
= 泊 泊 [po1] /lake/Taiwan pr. [bo2]/
- 樓蘭 楼兰 [Lou2 lan2] /ancient oasis town of Kroraina or Loulan on the Silk road near Lop Nor 羅布泊|罗布泊, modern Xinjiang/
+ 樓蘭 楼兰 [Lou2 lan2] /Loulan, aka Kroraina, ancient oasis town on the Silk Road near Lop Nor 羅布泊|罗布泊[Luo2 bu4 po1]/

Change log entry 73494
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-04 23:39:39 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69209 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
subsidiary; subordinate
See 子公司

形 派生的; 从属的
| 子公司
| 子城
| 子堤。


| ~句
| ~公司
| ~计划。


For 子 as equivalent to, and common translation of the prefix sub- (and following from the sense above), see examples such as:
子域 subfield
子集 subset
子程序 subroutine
子群 subgroup
子环 subring
子空间 subspace
子目录 subdirectory
子网 subnetwork
子类型 subtyping
子序列 subsequence
子范畴 subcategory
- 子 子 [zi3] /son/child/seed/egg/small thing/1st earthly branch: 11 p.m.-1 a.m., midnight, 11th solar month (7th December to 5th January), year of the Rat/Viscount, fourth of five orders of nobility 五等爵位[wu3 deng3 jue2 wei4]/ancient Chinese compass point: 0° (north)/
+ 子 子 [zi3] /son/child/seed/egg/small thing/1st earthly branch: 11 p.m.-1 a.m., midnight, 11th solar month (7th December to 5th January), year of the Rat/Viscount, fourth of five orders of nobility 五等爵位[wu3 deng3 jue2 wei4]/ancient Chinese compass point: 0° (north)/subsidiary/subordinate/sub-/

Change log entry 73493
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-04 07:52:40 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69199 - submitted by 'sl89' >>

code inspection and walkthrough

code walkthrough

Accordingly, the Commission may perform an "on-site walk through, with appropriate concrete examples" of the system and request information and clarifications, "including verification of underlying documents".

We would have avoided this "error" had the customer been consulted in the early requirement-review and walkthrough phases.

The idea of a "code walkthrough" refers to the process of walking through your code verbally or visually with or without other people

认知走查、启发式评估、可用性测试 傻傻分不清?| 干货分享
认知走查 Cognitive Walkthrough

Walk-through Folder
+ 走查 走查 [zou3 cha2] /walkthrough (computing)/

Change log entry 73492
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-04 05:01:59 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69197 - submitted by 'ekliao' >>
aerosol is commonly the translation for 氣膠 or 氣溶膠, while droplet is 飛沫

Editor: examples ~

1) Coughing and sneezing.

In the recent enterovirus case, public health scholars were certain that the main channel of transmission of the disease was through fecal and oral transmission. It was rarely transmitted through the air. Thus they instructed people to avoid public places, and to thoroughly wash their hands. Also, swimming pools, kindergartens, nursery schools, and other likely locations for the spread of illness were closed.

Infectious diseases and their means of transmission
愛滋病: 性接觸、血液傳染、母子垂直感染
AIDS: Sexual contact, blood infection, mother-to-child transmission
退伍軍人症: 飛沫傳染
Legionnaires' disease: Airborne droplets

There are divergent theories on how the [SARS] virus spreads. Some experts say it spreads through droplets and others contend that it can be airborne, while bodily fluids and sexual activity are other suspected forms of infection.

Thus the disease begins to spread via airborne droplets and physical contact. This occurs when one comes into contact with the oral and/or nasal secretions of the patient or with infected fecal matter and then touches the lining of one's own mouth, eyes or nose. There are no receptors on the skin itself, so becoming infected by skin contact is unlikely.

TB is less of a threat than SARS. Though both diseases have the same route of transmission-infection by airborne droplets-SARS is caused by a new pathogen, and the entire public lacks antibodies to it, while M. tuberculosis is a very ancient bacterium. TB is not highly contagious, and even if a person is infected, treatment can effect a complete cure. There is no need for panic.

Route of infection:
Through airborne droplets containing the bacterium and released into the air by the coughing, sneezing, or spitting of a tuberculosis patient.

After a tuberculosis victim has completed the treatment course, he does not possess immunity to tuberculosis and has the same chance of infection as the general population. Therefore, avoiding damp, dimly lit, unsanitary areas, as well as congregations of people at close quarters where there may be contact with airborne droplets of sputum, maintaining good general fitness, and strengthening the immune system are essential for preventing infection.

2) Droplets of acid (produced in the process of etching a metal plate).

In order to create the effect of different depths of etched line, printmakers use three different broad categories of mordants to erode the metal. A strong nitric acid is suitable for creating rough, uneven surfaces; a weaker solution of nitric acid is used when more subtlety is required. For fine lines, ferric chloride is the best choice. Finally, for extremely precise, fine lines, hydrochloric acid, also known as Dutch mordant, is most common. After submerging the metal plate in the nitric acid, the part being eroded produces bubbles containing the pernicious compounds nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, which over long periods are damaging to the lungs and air passages. The acid itself can stain, burn holes in clothing, and induce skin irritation and disease.

3) Droplets blown off waves on the sea.
"spindrift: 浪花, 海浪飛沫"
- 飛沫 飞沫 [fei1 mo4] /aerosol/spray/mist/splattered drops/spray from sneeze or saliva/
# + 飛沫 飞沫 [fei1 mo4] /droplet/spray/mist/splattered drops/spray from sneeze or saliva/
+ 飛沫 飞沫 [fei1 mo4] /airborne droplet/

Change log entry 73491
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-03 07:32:22 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69207 >>
English-language resources on this subject are difficult to find, but this book describes this word using its Japanese romanization, from which the equivalent Chinese word can be derived.

> English-language resources on this subject are difficult to find
We are a Chinese-English dictionary, so Chinese-language resources are what we need, not English-language ones.

> from which the equivalent Chinese word can be derived
The fact that 姓名判断 is a Japanese term doesn't imply that it's also a Chinese term.
# 姓名判斷 姓名判断 [xing4 ming2 pan4 duan4] /divination via name, onomancy/

Change log entry 73490
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-02 11:53:41 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69167 - submitted by 'aaronwong' >>
饭圈 does not necessarily refer to a group of supporters of a particular celebrity. It may refer to the community or subculture composed of fans in general.
- 飯圈 饭圈 [fan4 quan1] /fan club/
# + 飯圈 饭圈 [fan4 quan1] /fan club/fandom/
+ 飯圈 饭圈 [fan4 quan1] /fan community/fandom/

Change log entry 73489
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-02 11:48:45 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69206 - submitted by 'goldyn_chyld' >>
+ 分光光度法 分光光度法 [fen1 guang1 guang1 du4 fa3] /spectrophotometry/

Change log entry 73488
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-02 11:47:29 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69083 - submitted by 'sykul' >>
# 五大三粗 五大三粗 [wu3 da4 san1 cu1] /big and tall/a large and thick physique/
+ 五大三粗 五大三粗 [wu3 da4 san1 cu1] /burly/strapping/big and strong/

Change log entry 73487
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-01 06:54:14 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69202 - submitted by 'monigeria' >>

社‌‌‌‌‌‌‌​​​‌‌‌‌​​​会性死亡 的简称。



在公共场合不小心做了一件非常尴尬的事,太尴尬了很想死。so embarrassing that you want to die at that point.

Short for 社會性死亡/社会性死亡 (shèhuìxìng sǐwáng, “to undergo social death”).

Editor: Social death is when somebody ceases to exist as a member of society (by being ignored, excluded or forgotten), whereas 社死 is more like what hinative (and other sources) say: "so embarrassing that you want to die at that point".

Also, "social death" is an academic term whereas 社死 is a slangy buzzword.

1. "(November 2020) ... in China, this buzzword means to make a fool of oneself in public. To be “社会性死亡”, it must be an extremely embarrassing experience in front of the public. [...] 我昨天在地铁里放了个响屁,当时我就社死了。"

2. 这回是真社死了
# 社死 社死 [she4 si3] /to die a social death/
+ 社死 社死 [she4 si3] /(neologism c. 2020) (slang) to die of embarrassment (figuratively)/

Change log entry 73486
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-01 06:06:15 GMT)
Comment: dang3 --> dang4, though in Tw it would indeed be dang3
- 副檔名 副档名 [fu4 dang3 ming2] /(file) extension (computing) (Tw)/
+ 副檔名 副档名 [fu4 dang4 ming2] /(file) extension (computing) (Tw)/

Change log entry 73485
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-01 06:01:33 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69204 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
1) Our definition doesn't indicate that it's transitive. The grammatical object is usually 肚子.*
2) It's not necessarily bad food. It may happen when you eat *good* food to excess.

- 是吃了什麼不新鮮的東西,吃壞了肚子 ...
- 因為吃壞肚子時所出現的「上吐、下瀉」,其實是一種身體的免疫保護機制,
- 吃壞肚子怎麼辦?

少吃多滋味, 多吃坏肚皮。
Eat little [and you'll] enjoy the flavor more; eat too much [and you'll] spoil your stomach.

Huang explains that the schools exercise tight control over their food supplies, so people can rest easy about safety. After the food is turned over to Agape, it is immediately placed in refrigerators and freezers, before it is cooked again or reheated that evening to provide meals to 20–30 people.

* I have one TP example where the object is one's taste buds:
"As for basic ingredients, production used to follow certain natural cycles. Today, if there is a demand from the public, production has to be increased. In the old days you could only eat Dazha crabs in the autumn. You had a few then and the rest of the year you depended on your imagination. How different now when you can eat them every day-and completely ruin your taste buds."
- 吃壞 吃坏 [chi1 huai4] /to get sick because of bad food/
+ 吃壞 吃坏 [chi1 huai4] /to upset (one's stomach) by eating bad food or overeating/

Change log entry 73484
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-09-01 05:59:56 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69205 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
- ii
- It's a verb.

The president must clearly know what he has to do and what he cannot do. He cannot abuse his power, otherwise he may become corrupted by power.

whereas human intestines are 4-6 meters long, with numerous folds. The long process of human digestion is thus not suited to meat, which easily spoils.

seafood and leaf vegetables do not keep well, so buying too much of these foods only increases the likelihood of them spoiling.

Aside from insisting on traditional methods, Liao also made use of modern technology to carry out the restoration. Pao-an Temple worked with the School of Forestry and Resource Conservation at National Taiwan University (NTU) to perform a detailed inspection of the state of decay of the wood in the temple, utilizing nondestructive ultrasound technology.

Every June, as the fruits begin to grow, beetles flock to the trees to burrow into their trunks and lay eggs, causing the trunks to rot.

which led to rotting of the roots

removing the fur, skinning the animal, and butchering and cooking the meat to prevent spoilage.

To create a solid fuel from silvergrass, the Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, NCKU, has used pyrolysis (the thermochemical decomposition of organic material at high temperatures with limited oxygen or without oxygen) to produce charcoal. Dr. Chen Guanbang from the research center notes that while sun-drying and compression may be the cheapest method, the resultant fuel lacks burning efficiency because of retained moisture. And since the pieces are quite large, it’s not easy to store (it can tend to rot) or transport.

A mushroom is a very special life form. It grows rapidly beneath tree branches that lie decaying on the ground.

the risk of the fish simply rotting is greatly increased.
- 腐壞 腐坏 [fu3 huai4] /rot/
+ 腐壞 腐坏 [fu3 huai4] /to rot/to spoil/(fig.) to become corrupted/

Change log entry 73483
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-01 02:23:07 GMT)
Comment: 壞|坏[huai4]
- 壊 壊 [huai4] /Japanese variant of 壞|坏/
+ 壊 壊 [huai4] /Japanese variant of 壞|坏[huai4]/

Change log entry 73482
Processed by: richwarm (2021-09-01 01:56:54 GMT)
- 快信 快信 [kuai4 xin4] /letter by express mail/
+ 快信 快信 [kuai4 xin4] /letter sent by express mail/

Change log entry 73481
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-08-28 07:18:11 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69055 - submitted by 'richwarm' >>
1. 漢字筆畫之一。永字八法中向右下斜引,末端稍出波折。如「水」字之末筆。

2. 擬聲詞。模擬鳥鳴聲或形容鷓鴣的叫聲。
例 「磔磔」、「格磔」。

例 「叔陵險躁奔競,遂行悖逆,磔形骸,未臻其罪,汙瀦居處,不足彰過,悲哉(《陳書‧卷三十六‧新安王伯固列傳》)​!」。

例 「頷下修髯如戟,兩頰亦磔蝟毛(清‧紀昀《閱微草堂筆記‧卷十四‧槐西雜志四》)​」。


TP (onom. example)
"He stalks the earth and when his victims hear his spine-chilling laugh in the distance two bloody holes appear on their necks."
Preceding sentence:
"In one famous Hong Kong martial arts novel there appears a weird character called Green-Bat-Winged Wei I Hsiao, one of the four Zoroastrian lords, who must drink human blood to heal wounds."

ㄏㄨㄢˋ ㄓㄜˊ
to tear (an offender) asunder between vehicles (a form of punishment)

磔 [名] 一種書法筆法。用筆時向右下斜,今稱為「捺」。

"(outdated, Chinese calligraphy) Synonym of 捺"
- 磔 磔 [zhe2] /tearing off limbs as punishment/
+ 磔 磔 [zhe2] /old term for the right-falling stroke in Chinese characters (e.g. the last stroke of 大[da4]), now called 捺[na4]/sound made by birds (onom.)/(literary) to dismember (form of punishment)/to spread/

Change log entry 73480
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-08-27 09:12:01 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69191 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
副檔名(Filename Extension,或作延伸檔名、后缀名)是早期操作系统(如VMS/CP/M/DOS等)用来标志檔案格式的一种机制。以DOS来说,一个副檔名是跟在主檔名后面的,由一个分隔符号分隔。
A filename extension, file extension or file type is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name of a computer file. The extension indicates a characteristic of the file contents or its intended use.




Each time the command processor loads an external command into memory, it places the contents of the file with an EXE or COM extension into the transient portion of the command processor and available memory.

剪贴板文件的缺省扩展名是 .CLP。
The default extension for a Clipboard file is .CLP.

xml文件得到. xml扩展名。
XML files get the.xml extension.

The extension starts with a period (.) (for example,.ext).


Windows 中的一般檔案名稱副檔名
# 擴展名 扩展名 [kuo4 zhan3 ming2] /(file) extension (IT)/
# 副檔名 副档名 [fu4 dang3 ming2] /(file) extension (IT) (Tw)/
+ 擴展名 扩展名 [kuo4 zhan3 ming2] /(file) extension (computing)/
+ 副檔名 副档名 [fu4 dang3 ming2] /(file) extension (computing) (Tw)/

Change log entry 73479
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-08-27 05:46:38 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69192 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
缩略图(英語:thumbnail)是一种较小尺寸的图像或影片,用于方便在大量檔案中寻找檔案,常用在網路搜索功能中。Microsoft Windows、macOS、KDE(Linux)、GNOME(Linux)等系统都内置生成缩略图的功能。
Thumbnails are reduced-size versions of pictures or videos, used to help in recognizing and organizing them, serving the same role for images as a normal text index does for words. In

The second function of your album is allowing the user to click on a thumbnail and get a blown-up version of the photo.

However, sliders are an excellent choice for zooming interactions, such as adjusting the scale of a map or the size of photo thumbnails.

The taskbar shows thumbnail previews of opened Windows when you hover the mouse over the program icon. By default, it takes a little time for the preview to appear.

快速而容易地比较施加了变换和没有施加变换之间的差异。 这对于数字艺术家来说是帮助很大,很多产品都采用了这种带有小缩略图的“预览”模式。
The ability to see the image with the transformation and quickly and easily compare it to the image without the transformation would be a great help to the digital artist. Many products address this with small thumbnail “preview” images.
# 縮略圖 缩略图 [suo1 lu:e4 tu2] /thumbnail (IT)/
+ 縮略圖 缩略图 [suo1 lu:e4 tu2] /thumbnail (computing)/

Change log entry 73478
Processed by: goldyn_chyld (2021-08-26 08:59:08 GMT)
Comment: << review queue entry 69188 - submitted by 'sl89' >>
家长指导标识(英文:Parental Advisory Label),中国大陆俗称“脏标”,是在美国、英国出版发行的音像产品上的一种警告标识,最初由美国唱片业协会在1985年推出实行,2001年被英国唱片业协会采纳并在英国推广。
The Parental Advisory label (abbreviated PAL) is a warning label introduced by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) in 1985 and adopted by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) in 2011.


Q: 脏标是为何
A: 提示家长和青少年,这些唱片里面可能出现的一些不健康的信息和暗示。这和美国的电影分级制度有点像。

所谓脏标,就是以下这个LOGO——Parental Advisory Explicit Content,简称PAL。

唱片封面脏标简史 & 金属乐所遭误解
+ 髒標 脏标 [zang1 biao1] /Parental Advisory label (PRC)/

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By MDBG 2021
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